Utah Administrative Code

The Utah Administrative Code is the body of all effective administrative rules as compiled and organized by the Division of Administrative Rules (see Subsection 63G-3-102(5); see also Sections 63G-3-701 and 702).

NOTE: For a list of rules that have been made effective since October 1, 2019, please see the codification segue page.

NOTE TO RULEFILING AGENCIES: Use the RTF version for submitting rule changes.


R309. Environmental Quality, Drinking Water.

Rule R309-110. Administration: Definitions.

As in effect on October 1, 2019

Table of Contents

R309-110-1. Purpose.

The purpose of this rule is to define certain terms and expressions that are utilized throughout all rules under R309. Collectively, those rules govern the administration, monitoring, operation and maintenance of public drinking water systems as well as the design and construction of facilities within said systems.

R309-110-2. Authority.

This rule is promulgated by the Drinking Water Board as authorized by Title 19, Environmental Quality Code, Chapter 4, Safe Drinking Water Act, Subsection 104 of the Utah Code and in accordance with 63G-3 of the same, known as the Administrative Rulemaking Act.

R309-110-3. Acronyms.

As used in R309:

"AF" means Acre Foot.

"AWOP" means Area Wide Optimization Program.

"AWWA" means American Water Works Association.

"BAT" means Best Available Technology.

"C" means Residual Disinfectant Concentration.

"CCP" means Composite Correction Program.

"CCR" means Consumer Confidence Report.

"CEU" means Continuing Education Unit.

"CFE" means Combined Filter Effluent.

"CFR" means Code of Federal Regulations.

"cfs" means Cubic Feet Per Second.

"CPE" means Comprehensive Performance Evaluation.

"CT" means Residual Concentration multiplied by Contact Time.

"CTA" means Comprehensive Technical Assistance.

"CWS" means Community Water System.

"DBPs" means Disinfection Byproducts.

"DE" means Diatomaceous Earth.

"DTF" means Data Transfer Format.

"DWSP" means Drinking Water Source Protection.

"EP" means Entry Point.

"EPA" means Environmental Protection Agency.

"ERC" means Equivalent Residential Connection.

"FBRR" means Filter Backwash Recycling Rule.

"fps" means Feet Per Second

"FR" means Federal Register.

"gpd" means Gallons Per Day.

"gpm" means Gallons Per Minute.

"gpm/sf" means Gallons Per Minute Per Square Foot.

"GWR" means Ground Water Rule.

"GWUDI" means Ground Water Under Direct Influence of Surface Water.

"HAA5s" means Haloacetic Acids (Five).

"HPC" means Heterotrophic Plate Count.

"ICR" means Information Collection Rule of 40 CRF 141 subpart M.

"IESWTR" means Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule.

"IFE" means Individual Filter Effluent.

"LT1ESWTR" means Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule.

"LT2ESWTR" means Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule.

"MCL" means Maximum Contaminant Level.

"MCLG" means Maximum Contaminant Level Goal.

"M and R" means Monitoring and Reporting.

"MDBP" means Microbial-Disinfection Byproducts.

"M/DBP Cluster" means Microbial-Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Cluster.

"MG" means Million Gallons.

"MGD" means Million Gallons Per Day.

"mg/L" means Milligrams Per Liter

"MRDL" means Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level.

"MRDLG" means Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goal.

"NCWS" means Non-Community Water System.

"NTNC" means Non-Transient Non-Community.

"NTU" means Nephelometric Turbidity Unit.

"PN" means Public Notification.

"POE" means Point-of-Entry.

"POU" means Point-of-Use.

"PWS" means Public Water System.

"PWS-ID" means Public Water System Identification Number.

"RTC" means Return to Compliance.

"SDWA" means Safe Drinking Water Act.

"SDWIS/FED" means Safe Drinking Water Information System/Federal Version.

"SDWIS/STATE" means Safe Drinking Water Information System/State Version.

"SNC" means Significant Non-Compliance.

"Stage 1 DBPR" means Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule.

"Stage 2 DBPR" means Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule.

"Subpart H" means A PWS using SW or GWUDI.

"Subpart P" means A PWS using SW or GWUDI and serving at least 10,000 people.

"Subpart S" means Provisions of 40 CRF 141 subpart S commonly referred to as the Information Collection Rule.

"Subpart T" means A PWS using SW or GWUDI and serving less than 10,000 people.

"SUVA" means Specific Ultraviolet Absorption.

"SW" means Surface Water.

"SWAP" means Source Water Assessment Program.

"SWTR" means Surface Water Treatment Rule.

"T" means Contact Time.

"TA" means Technical Assistance.

"TCR" means Total Coliform Rule.

"TNCWS" means Transient Non-Community Water System.

"TNTC" means Too Numerous To Count.

"TOC" means Total Organic Carbon.

"TT" means Treatment Technique.

"TTHM" means Total Trihalomethanes.

"UAC" means Utah Administrative Code.

"UPDWR" means Utah Public Drinking Water Rules (R309 of the UAC).

"WCP" means Watershed Control Program.

"WHP" means Wellhead Protection.

R309-110-4. Definitions.

As used in R309:

"Action Level" means the concentration of lead or copper in drinking water tap samples (0.015 mg/l for lead and 1.3 mg/l for copper) which determines, in some cases, the corrosion treatment, public education and lead line replacement requirements that a water system is required to complete.

"AF" means acre foot and is the volume of water required to cover an acre to a depth of one foot (one AF is equivalent to 325,851 gallons).

"Air gap" The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, catch basin, plumbing fixture or other device and the flood level rim of the receptacle. This distance shall be two times the diameter of the effective opening for openings greater than one inch in diameter where walls or obstructions are spaced from the nearest inside edge of the pipe opening a distance greater than three times the diameter of the effective openings for a single wall, or a distance greater than four times the diameter of the effective opening for two intersecting walls. This distance shall be three times the diameter of the effective opening where walls or obstructions are closer than the distances indicated above.

"ANSI/NSF" refers to the American National Standards Institute and NSF International. NSF International has prepared at least two health effect standards dealing with treatment chemicals added to drinking water and system components that will come into contact with drinking water, these being Standard 60 and Standard 61. The American National Standards Institute acts as a certifying agency, and determines which laboratories may certify to these standards.

"Approval" unless indicated otherwise, shall be taken to mean a written statement of acceptance from the Director.

"Approved" refers to a rating placed on a system by the Division and means that the public water system is operating in substantial compliance with all the Rules of R309.

"Average Yearly Demand" means the amount of water delivered to consumers by a public water system during a typical year, generally expressed in MG or AF.

"AWWA" refers to the American Water Works Association located at 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, Colorado 80235. Reference within these rules is generally to a particular Standard prepared by AWWA and which has completed the ANSI approval process such as ANSI/AWWA Standard C651-92 (AWWA Standard for Disinfecting Water Mains).

"Backflow" means the undesirable reversal of flow of water or mixtures of water and other liquids, gases, or other substances into the distribution pipes of the potable water supply from any source. Also see backsiphonage, backpressure and cross-connection.

"Backpressure" means the phenomena that occurs when the customer's pressure is higher than the supply pressure, This could be caused by an unprotected cross connection between a drinking water supply and a pressurized irrigation system, a boiler, a pressurized industrial process, elevation differences, air or steam pressure, use of booster pumps or any other source of pressure. Also see backflow, backsiphonage and cross connection.

"Backsiphonage" means a form of backflow due to a reduction in system pressure which causes a subatmospheric or negative pressure to exist at a site or point in the water system. Also see backflow and cross-connection.

"Bag Filters" are pressure-driven separation devices that remove particle matter larger than 1 micrometer using an engineered porous filtration media. They are typically constructed of a non-rigid, fabric filtration media housed in a pressure vessel in which the direction of flow is from the inside of the bag to outside.

"Bank Filtration" is a water treatment process that uses a well to recover surface water that has naturally infiltrated into ground water through a river bed or bank(s). Infiltration is typically enhanced by the hydraulic gradient imposed by a nearby pumping water supply or other well(s).

"Best Available Technology" (BAT) means the best technology, treatment techniques, or other means which the Director finds, after examination under field conditions and not solely under laboratory conditions, are available (taking cost into consideration). For the purposes of setting MCLs for synthetic organic chemicals, any BAT must be at least as effective as granular activated carbon for all these chemicals except vinyl chloride. Central treatment using packed tower aeration is also identified as BAT for synthetic organic chemicals.

"Board" means the Drinking Water Board.

"Body Politic" means the State or its agencies or any political subdivision of the State to include a county, city, town, improvement district, taxing district or any other governmental subdivision or public corporation fo the State.

"Breakpoint Chlorination" means addition of chlorine to water until the chlorine demand has been satisfied. At this point, further addition of chlorine will result in a free residual chlorine that is directly proportional to the amount of chlorine added beyond the breakpoint.

"C" is short for "Residual Disinfectant Concentration."

"Capacity Development" means technical, managerial, and financial capabilities of the water system to plan for, achieve, and maintain compliance with applicable drinking water standards.

"Cartridge filters" are pressure-driven separation devices that remove particulate matter larger than 1 micrometer using an engineered porous filtration media. They are typically constructed as rigid or semi-rigid, self-supporting filter elements housed in pressure vessels in which flow is from the outside of the cartridge to the inside.

"cfs" means cubic feet per second and is one way of expressing flowrate (one cfs is equivalent to 448.8 gpm).

"Class" means the level of certification of Backflow Prevention Technician (Class I, II or III).

"Coagulation" is the process of destabilization of the charge (predominantly negative) on particulates and colloids suspended in water. Destabilization lessens the repelling character of particulates and colloids and allows them to become attached to other particles so that they may be removed in subsequent processes. The particulates in raw waters (which contribute to color and turbidity) are mainly clays, silt, viruses, bacteria, fulvic and humic acids, minerals (including asbestos, silicates, silica, and radioactive particles), and organic particulate.

"Collection area" means the area surrounding a ground-water source which is underlain by collection pipes, tile, tunnels, infiltration boxes, or other ground-water collection devices.

"Combined distribution system" is the interconnected distribution system consisting of the distribution systems of wholesale systems and of the consecutive systems that receive finished water.

"Commission" means the Operator Certification Commission.

"Community Water System" (CWS) means a public water system which serves at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents or regularly serves at least 25 year-round residents.

"Compliance cycle" means the nine-year calendar year cycle during which public water systems must monitor. Each compliance cycle consists of three three-year compliance periods. The first calendar year cycle began January 1, 1993 and ends December 31, 2001; the second begins January 1, 2002 and ends December 31, 2010; the third begins January 1, 2011 and ends December 31, 2019.

"Compliance period" means a three-year calendar year period within a compliance cycle. Each compliance cycle has three three-year compliance periods. Within the first compliance cycle, the first compliance period ran from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1995; the second from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 1998; and the third is from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2001.

"Comprehensive Performance Evaluation" (CPE) is a thorough review and analysis of a treatment plant's performance-based capabilities and associated administrative, operation and maintenance practices. It is conducted to identify factors that may be adversely impacting a plant's capability to achieve compliance and emphasizes approaches that can be implemented without significant capital improvements. For purposes of compliance with these rules, the comprehensive performance evaluation must consist of at least the following components: Assessment of plant performance; evaluation of major unit processes; identification and prioritization of performance limiting factors; assessment of the applicability of comprehensive technical assistance; and preparation of a CPE report.

"Confirmed SOC contamination area" means an area surrounding and including a plume of SOC contamination of the soil or water which previous monitoring results have confirmed. The area boundaries may be determined by measuring 3,000 feet horizontally from the outermost edges of the confirmed plume. The area includes deeper aquifers even though only the shallow aquifer is the one contaminated.

"Confluent growth" means a continuous bacterial growth covering the entire filtration area of a membrane filter, or a portion of the filtration area in which discrete bacterial colonies can not be distinguished.

"Consecutive system" is a public water system that receives some or all of its finished water from one or more wholesale systems. Delivery may be through a direct connection or through the distribution system or one or more consecutive systems.

"Contaminant" means any physical, chemical biological, or radiological substance or matter in water.

"Continuing Education Unit" (CEU) means ten contact hours of participation in, and successful completion of, an organized and approved continuing education experience under responsible sponsorship, capable direction, and qualified instruction. College credit in approved courses may be substituted for CEUs on an equivalency basis.

"Conventional Surface Water Treatment" means a series of processes including coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection resulting in substantial particulate removal and inactivation of pathogens.

"Controls" means any codes, ordinances, rules, and regulations that a public water system can cite as currently in effect to regulate potential contamination sources; any physical conditions which may prevent contaminants from migrating off of a site and into surface or ground water; and any site with negligible quantities of contaminants.

"Corrective Action" refers to a rating placed on a system by the Division and means a provisional rating for a public water system not in compliance with the Rules of R309, but making all the necessary changes outlined by the Director to bring them into compliance.

"Corrosion inhibitor" means a substance capable of reducing the corrosiveness of water toward metal plumbing materials, especially lead and copper, by forming a protective film on the interior surface of those materials.

"Credit Enhancement Agreement" means any agreement entered into between the Board, on behalf of the State, and an eligible water system for the purpose of providing methods and assistance to eligible water systems to improve the security for and marketability of drinking water project obligations.

"Criteria" means the conceptual standards that form the basis for DWSP area delineation to include distance, ground-water time of travel, aquifer boundaries, and ground-water divides.

"Criteria threshold" means a value or set of values selected to represent the limits above or below which a given criterion will cease to provide the desired degree of protection.

"Cross-Connection" means any actual or potential connection between a drinking (potable) water system and any other source or system through which it is possible to introduce into the public drinking water system any used water, industrial fluid, gas or substance other than the intended potable water. For example, if you have a pump moving non-potable water and hook into the drinking water system to supply water for the pump seal, a cross-connection or mixing may lead to contamination of the drinking water. Also see backsiphonage, backpressure and backflow.

"Cross Connection Control Program" means the program administered by the public water system in which cross connections are either eliminated or controlled.

"Cross Connection Control Commission" means the duly constituted advisory subcommittee appointed by the Board to advise the Board on Backflow Technician Certification and the Cross Connection Control Program of Utah.

"CT" or "CTcalc" is the product of "residual disinfectant concentration" (C) in mg/l determined before or at the first customer, and the corresponding "disinfectant contact time" (T) in minutes, i.e., "C" x "T." If a public water system applies disinfectant at more than one point prior to the first customer, the summation of each CT value for each disinfectant sequence before or at the first customer determines the total percent inactivation or "Total Inactivation Ratio." In determining the Total Inactivation Ratio, the public water system must determine the residual disinfectant concentration of each disinfection sequence and corresponding contact time before any subsequent disinfection application point(s).

"CTreq'd" is the CT value required when the log reduction credit given the filter is subtracted from the (3-log) inactivation requirement for Giardia lamblia or the (4-log) inactivation requirement for viruses.

"CT99.9" is the CT value required for 99.9 percent (3-log) inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts. CT99.9 for a variety of disinfectants and conditions appear in Tables 1.1-1.6, 2.1, and 3.1 of Section 141.74(b)(3) in the code of Federal Regulations (also available from the Division).

"Designated person" means the person appointed by a public water system to ensure that the requirements of their Drinking Water Source Protection Plan(s) for ground water sources and/or surface water sources are met.

"Desired Design Discharge Rate" means the discharge rate selected for the permanent pump installed in a public drinking water well source. This pumping rate is selected by the water system owner or engineer and can match or be the same rate utilized during the constant rate pump test required by R309-515 and R309-600 to determine delineated protection zones. For consideration of the number of permanent residential connections or ERC's that a well source can support (see Safe Yield) the Director will consider 2/3 of the test pumping rate as the safe yield.

"Detectable residual" means the minimum level of free chlorine in the water that the analysis method is capable of detecting and indicating positive confirmation.

"Direct Employment" means that the operator is directly compensated by the drinking water system to operate that drinking water system.

"Direct Filtration" means a series of processes including coagulation and filtration, but excluding sedimentation, resulting in substantial particulate removal.

"Direct Responsible Charge" means active on-site control and management of routine maintenance and operation duties. A person in direct responsible charge is generally an operator of a water treatment plant or distribution system who independently makes decisions during normal operation which can affect the sanitary quality, safety, and adequacy of water delivered to customers. In cases where only one operator is employed by the system, this operator shall be considered to be in direct responsible charge.

"Director" means the Director of the Division of Drinking Water.

"Disadvantaged Communities" are defined as those communities located in an area which has a median adjusted gross income which is less than or equal to 80% of the State's median adjusted gross income, as determined by the Utah State Tax commission from federal individual income tax returns excluding zero exemptions returns.

"Discipline" means type of certification (Distribution or Treatment).

"Disinfectant Contact Time" ("T" in CT calculations) means the time in minutes that it takes water to move from the point of disinfectant application or the previous point of disinfectant residual measurement to a point before or at the point where residual disinfectant concentration ("C") is measured. Where only one "C" is measured, "T" is the time in minutes that it takes water to move from the point of disinfectant application to a point before or at where residual disinfectant concentration ("C") is measured. Where more than one "C" is measured, "T" is (a) for the first measurement of "C," the time in minutes that it takes water to move from the first or only point of disinfectant application to a point before or at the point where the first "C" is measured and (b) for subsequent measurements of "C," the time in minutes that it takes for water to move from the previous "C" measurement point to the "C" measurement point for which the particular "T" is being calculated. Disinfectant contact time in pipelines must be calculated by dividing the internal volume of the pipe by the maximum hourly flow rate through that pipe. Disinfectant contact time within mixing basins and storage reservoirs must be determined by tracer studies or an equivalent demonstration.

"Disinfection" means a process which inactivates pathogenic organisms in water by chemical oxidants or equivalent agents (see also Primary Disinfection and Secondary Disinfection).

"Disinfection profile" is a summary of daily Giardia lamblia inactivation through the treatment plant.

"Distribution System" means the use of any spring or well source, distribution pipelines, appurtenances, and facilities which carry water for potable use to consumers through a public water supply. Systems which chlorinate groundwater are in this discipline.

"Distribution System Manager" means the individual responsible for all operations of a distribution system.

"Division" means the Utah Division of Drinking Water, who acts as staff to the Director and is also part of the Utah Department of Environmental Quality.

"Dose-monitoring Strategy" is the method by which a UV reactor maintains the required dose at or near some specified value by monitoring UV dose delivery. Such strategies must include, at a minimum, flow rate and UV intensity (measured via duty UV sensor) and lamp status. They sometimes include UVT and lamp power. Two common Dose-monitoring Strategies are the UV Intensity Setpoint Approach and the Calculated Dose Approach.

(1) The "UV Intensity Setpoint Approach" relies on one or more "setpoints" for UV intensity that are established during validation testing to determine UV dose. During operations, the UV intensity as measured by the UV sensors must meet or exceed the setpoint(s) to ensure delivery of the required dose. Reactors must also be operated within validated operation conditions for flow rates and lamp status. In the UV Intensity Setpoint Approach, UVT does not need to be monitored separately. Instead, the intensity readings by the sensors account for changes in UVT. The operating strategy can be with either a single setpoint (one UV intensity setpoint is used for all validated flow rates) or a variable setpoint (the UV intensity setpoint is determined using a lookup table or equation for a range of flow rates).

(2) The "Calculated Dose Approach" uses a dose-monitoring equation to estimate the UV dose based on operating conditions (typically flow rate, UV intensity, and UVT). The dose-monitoring equation may be developed by the UV manufacturers using numerical methods; or the systems use an empirical dose-monitoring equation developed through validation testing. During reactor operations, the UV reactor control system inputs the measured parameters into the dose-monitoring equation to produce a calculated dose. The system operator divides the calculated dose by the Validation Factor (see the 2006 Final UV Guidance Manual Chapter 5 for more details on the Validation Factor) and compares the resulting value to the required dose for the target pathogen and log inactivation level.

"Dose Equivalent" means the product of the absorbed dose from ionizing radiation and such factors as account for differences in biological effectiveness due to the type of radiation and its distribution in the body as specified by the International Commission of Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU).

"Drinking Water" means water that is fit for human consumption and meets the quality standards of R309-200. Common usage of terms such as culinary water, potable water or finished water are synonymous with drinking water.

"Drinking Water Project" means any work or facility necessary or desirable to provide water for human consumption and other domestic uses which has at least fifteen service connections or serves an average of twenty-five individuals daily for at least sixty days of the year and includes collection, treatment, storage, and distribution facilities under the control of the operator and used primarily with the system and collection, pretreatment or storage facilities used primarily in connection with the system but not under such control.

"Drinking Water Project Obligation" means any bond, note or other obligation issued to finance all or part of the cost of acquiring, constructing, expanding, upgrading or improving a drinking water project.

"Drinking Water Regional Planning" means a county wide water plan, administered locally by a coordinator, who facilitates the input of representatives of each public water system in the county with a selected consultant, to determine how each public water system will either collectively or individually comply with source protection, operator certification, monitoring (including consumer confidence reports), capacity development (including technical, financial and managerial aspects), environmental issues, available funding and related studies.

"Dual sample set" is a set of two samples collected at the same time and same location, with one sample analyzed for TTHM and the other sample analyzed for HAA5. Dual sample sets are collected for the purposes of conducting an IDSE under R309-210-9 and determining compliance with the TTHM and HAA5 MCLs under R309-210-10.

"Duty UV Sensors (or Duty Sensors)" are on-line sensors installed in the UV reactor and continuously monitor UV intensity during UV equipment operations.

"DWSP Program" means the program to protect drinking water source protection zones and management areas from contaminants that may have an adverse effect on the health of persons.

"DWSP Zone" means the surface and subsurface area surrounding a ground-water or surface water source of drinking water supplying a PWS, over which or through which contaminants are reasonably likely to move toward and reach such water source.

"Emergency Storage" means that storage tank volume which provides water during emergency situations, such as pipeline failures, major trunk main failures, equipment failures, electrical power outages, water treatment facility failures, source water supply contamination, or natural disasters.

"Engineer" means a person licensed under the Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors Licensing Act, 58-22 of the Utah Code, as a "professional engineer" as defined therein.

"Enhanced coagulation" means the addition of sufficient coagulant for improved removal of disinfection byproduct precursors by conventional filtration treatment.

"Enhanced softening" means the improved removal of disinfection byproduct precursors by precipitative softening.

"Equalization Storage" means that storage tank volume which stores water during periods of low demand and releases the water under periods of high demand. Equalization storage provides a buffer between the sources and distribution for the varying daily water demands. Typically, water demands are high in the early morning or evening and relatively low in the middle of the night. A rule-of-thumb for equalization storage volume is that it should be equal to one average day's use.

"Equivalent Residential Connection" (ERC) is a term used to evaluate service connections to consumers other than the typical residential domicile. Public water system management is expected to review annual metered drinking water volumes delivered to non-residential connections and estimate the equivalent number of residential connections that these represent based upon the average of annual metered drinking water volumes delivered to true single family residential connections. This information is utilized in evaluation of the system's source and storage capacities (refer to R309-510).

"Existing ground-water source of drinking water" means a public supply ground-water source for which plans and specifications were submitted to the Division on or before July 26, 1993.

"Existing surface water source of drinking water" means a public supply surface water source for which plans and specifications were submitted to the Division on or before June 12, 2000.

"Filtration" means a process for removing particulate matter from water by passage through porous media.

"Filter profile" is a graphical representation of individual filter performance, based on continuous turbidity measurements or total particle counts verus time for an entire filter run, from startup to backwash inclusively, that includes an assessment of filter performance while another filter is being backwashed.

"Financial Assistance" means a drinking water project loan, credit enhancement agreement, interest buy-down agreement or hardship grant.

"Finished water" is water that is introduced into the distribution system of a public water system and is intended for distribution and consumption without further treatment, except as treatment necessary to maintain water quality in the distribution system (e.g., booster disinfection, addition of corrosion control chemicals).

"Fire Suppression Storage" means that storage tank volume allocated to fire suppression activities. It is generally determined by the requirements of the local fire marshal, expressed in gallons, and determined by the product of a minimum flowrate in gpm and required time expressed in minutes.

"First draw sample" means a one-liter sample of tap water, collected in accordance with an approved lead and copper sampling site plan, that has been standing in plumbing pipes at least 6 hours and is collected without flushing the tap.

"Flash Mix" is the physical process of blending or dispersing a chemical additive into an unblended stream. Flash Mixing is used where an additive needs to be dispersed rapidly (within a period of one to ten seconds). Common usage of terms such as "rapid mix" or "initial mix" are synonymous with flash mix.

"Floc" means flocculated particles or agglomerated particles formed during the flocculation process. Flocculation enhances the agglomeration of destabilized particles and colloids toward settleable (or filterable) particles (flocs). Flocculated particles may be small (less than 0.1 mm diameter) micro flocs or large, visible flocs (0.1 to 3.0 mm diameter).

"Flocculation" means a process to enhance agglomeration of destabilized particles and colloids toward settleable (or filterable) particles (flocs). Flocculation begins immediately after destabilization in the zone of decaying mixing energy (downstream from the mixer) or as a result of the turbulence of transporting flow. Such incidental flocculation may be an adequate flocculation process in some instances. Normally flocculation involves an intentional and defined process of gentle stirring to enhance contact of destabilized particles and to build floc particles of optimum size, density, and strength to be subsequently removed by settling or filtration.

"Flowing stream" is a course of running water flowing in a definite channel.

"fps" means feet per second and is one way of expressing the velocity of water.

"G" is used to express the energy required for mixing and for flocculation. It is a term which is used to compare velocity gradients or the relative number of contacts per unit volume per second made by suspended particles during the flocculation process. Velocity gradients G may be calculated from the following equation: G = square root of the value(550 times P divided by u times V). Where: P = applied horsepower, u = viscosity, and V = effective volume.

"GAC10" means granular activated carbon filter beds with an empty-bed contact time of 10 minutes based on average daily flow and a carbon reactivation frequency of every 180 days, except that the reactivation frequency for GAC10 used as a best available technology for compliance with R309-210-10 MCLs under R309-200-5(3)(i)(A) shall be 120 days.

"GAC20" means granular activated carbon filter beds with an empty-bed contact time of 20 minutes based on average daily flow and a carbon reactivation frequency of every 240 days.

"Geologist" means a person licensed under the Professional Geologist Licensing Act, 58-76 of the Utah Code, as a "professional geologist" as defined therein.

"Geometric Mean" the geometric mean of a set of N numbers X1, X2, X3,...., XN is the Nth root of the product of the numbers.

"gpd" means gallons per day and is one way of expressing average daily water demands experienced by public water systems.

"gpm" means gallons per minute and is one way of expressing flowrate.

"gpm/sf" means gallons per minute per square foot and is one way of expressing flowrate through a surface area.

"Grade" means any one of four possible steps within a certification discipline of either water distribution or water treatment. Grade I indicates knowledge and experience requirements for the smallest type of public water supply. Grade IV indicates knowledge and experience levels appropriate for the largest, most complex type of public water supply.

"Gross Alpha Particle Activity" means the total radioactivity due to alpha particle emission as inferred from measurements on a dry sample.

"Gross Beta Particle Activity" means the total radioactivity due to beta particle emission as inferred from measurements on a dry sample.

"ground water of high quality" means a well or spring producing water deemed by the Director to be of sufficiently high quality that no treatment is required. Such sources shall have been designed and constructed in conformance with these rules, have been tested to establish that all applicable drinking water quality standards (as given in rule R309-200) are reliably and consistently met, have been deemed not vulnerable to natural or man-caused contamination, and the public water system management have established adequate protection zones and management policies in accordance with rule R309-600.

"ground water of low quality" means a well or spring which, as determined by the Director, cannot reliably and consistently meet the drinking water quality standards described in R309-200. Such sources shall be deemed to be a low quality ground water source if any of the conditions outlined in subsection R309-505-8(1) exist. Ground water that is classified "UDI" is a subset of this definition and requires "conventional surface water treatment" or an acceptable alternative.

"Ground Water Source" means any well, spring, tunnel, adit, or other underground opening from or through which ground water flows or is pumped from subsurface water-bearing formations.

"Ground Water Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water" or "UDI" or "GWUDI" means any water beneath the surface of the ground with significant occurrence of insects or other macro organisms, algae, or large-diameter pathogens such as Giardia lamblia, or Cryptosporidium, or significant and relatively rapid shifts in water characteristics such as turbidity, temperature, conductivity, or pH which closely correlate to climatological or surface water conditions. Direct influence will be determined for individual sources in accordance with criteria established by the Director. The determination of direct influence may be based on site-specific measurements of water quality and/or documentation of well or spring construction and geology with field evaluation.

"Haloacetic acids"(five) (HAA5) mean the sum of the concentrations in mg/L of the haloacetic acid compounds (monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, and dibromoacetic acid), rounded to two significant figures after addition.

"Hardship Grant" means a grant of monies to a political subdivision that meets the drinking water project loan considerations whose project is determined by the Board to not be economically feasible unless grant assistance is provided. A hardship grant may be authorized in the following forms:

(1) a Planning Advance which will be required to be repaid at a later date, to help meet project costs incident to planning to determine the economic, engineering and financial feasibility of a proposed project;

(2) a Design Advance which will be required to be repaid at a later date, to help meet project costs incident to design including, but not limited to, surveys, preparation of plans, working drawings, specifications, investigations and studies; or

(3) a Project Grant which will not be required to be repaid.

"Hardship Grant Assessment" means an assessment applied to loan recipients. The assessment shall be calculated as a percentage of principal. Hardship grant assessment funds shall be subject to the requirements of UAC R309-700 for hardship grants.

"Hotel, Motel or Resort" shall include tourist courts, motor hotels, resort camps, hostels, lodges, dormitories and similar facilities, and shall mean every building, or structure with all buildings and facilities in connection, kept, used, maintained as, advertised as, or held out to the public to be, a place where living accommodations are furnished to transient guests or to groups normally occupying such facilities on a seasonal or short term basis.

"Hydrogeologic methods" means the techniques used to translate selected criteria and criteria thresholds into mappable delineation boundaries. These methods include, but are not limited to, arbitrary fixed radii, analytical calculations and models, hydrogeologic mapping, and numerical flow models.

"Inactivation" means, in the context of UV disinfection, a process by which a microorganism is rendered unable to reproduce, thereby rendering it unable to infect a host.

"Initial compliance period" means the first full three-year compliance period which begins at least 18 months after promulgation, except for contaminants listed in R309-200-5(3)(a), Table 200-2 numbers 19 to 33; R309-200-5(3)(b), Table 200-3 numbers 19 to 21; and R309-200-5(1)(c), Table 200-1 numbers 1, 5, 8, 11 and 18, initial compliance period means the first full three-year compliance after promulgation for systems with 150 or more service connections (January 1993-December 1995), and first full three-year compliance period after the effective date of the regulation (January 1996-December 1998) for systems having fewer than 150 service connections.

"Intake", for the purposes of surface water drinking water source protection, means the device used to divert surface water and also the conveyance to the point immediately preceding treatment, or, if no treatment is provided, at the entry point to the distribution system.

"Interest Buy-Down Agreement" means any agreement entered into between the Board, on behalf of the State, and a political subdivision, for the purpose of reducing the cost of financing incurred by a political subdivision on bonds issued by the subdivision for drinking water project costs.

"Labor Camp" shall mean one or more buildings, structures, or grounds set aside for use as living quarters for groups of migrant laborers or temporary housing facilities intended to accommodate construction, industrial, mining or demolition workers.

"Lake / reservoir" refers to a natural or man made basin or hollow on the Earth's surface in which water collects or is stored that may or may not have a current or single direction of flow.

"Land management strategies" means zoning and non-zoning controls which include, but are not limited to, the following: zoning and subdivision ordinances, site plan reviews, design and operating standards, source prohibitions, purchase of property and development rights, public education programs, ground water monitoring, household hazardous waste collection programs, water conservation programs, memoranda of understanding, written contracts and agreements, and so forth.

"Land use agreement" means a written agreement, memoranda or contract wherein the owner(s) agrees not to locate or allow the location of uncontrolled potential contamination sources or pollution sources within zone one of new wells in protected aquifers or zone one of surface water sources. The owner(s) must also agree not to locate or allow the location of pollution sources within zone two of new wells in unprotected aquifers and new springs unless the pollution source agrees to install design standards which prevent contaminated discharges to ground water. This restriction must be binding on all heirs, successors, and assigns. Land use agreements must be recorded with the property description in the local county recorder's office. Refer to R309-600-13(2)(d).

Land use agreements for protection areas on publicly owned lands need not be recorded in the local county recorder office. However, a letter must be obtained from the Administrator of the land in question and meet the requirements described above.

"Large water system" for the purposes of R309-210-6 only, means a water system that serves more than 50,000 persons.

"Lead free" means, for the purposes of R309-210-6, when used with respect to solders and flux refers to solders and flux containing not more than 0.2 percent lead; when used with respect to pipes and pipe fittings refers to pipes and pipe fittings containing not more than 8.0 percent lead; and when used with respect to plumbing fittings and fixtures intended by the manufacturer to dispense water for human ingestion refers to fittings and fixtures that are in compliance with standards established in accordance with 42 U.S.C. 300 g-6(e).

"Lead service line" means a service line made of lead which connects the water main to the building inlet and any lead pigtail, gooseneck or other fitting which is connected to such lead line.

"Legionella" means a genus of bacteria, some species of which have caused a type of pneumonia called Legionnaires Disease.

"Level 1 assessment" means an evaluation to identify the possible presence of sanitary defects, defects in distribution system coliform monitoring practices, and (when possible) the likely reason that the system triggered the assessment. It is conducted by the system operator or owner. Minimum elements include review and identification of atypical events that could affect distributed water quality or indicate that distributed water quality was impaired; changes in distribution system maintenance and operation that could affect distributed water quality (including water storage); source and treatment considerations that bear on distributed water quality, where appropriate (e.g., whether a ground water system is disinfected); existing water quality monitoring data; and inadequacies in sample sites, sampling protocol, and sample processing. The system must conduct the assessment consistent with any State directives that tailor specific assessment elements with respect to the size and type of the system and the size, type, and characteristics of the distribution system.

"Level 2 assessment" means an evaluation to identify the possible presence of sanitary defects, defects in distribution system coliform monitoring practices, and (when possible) the likely reason that the system triggered the assessment. A Level 2 assessment provides a more detailed examination of the system (including the system's monitoring and operational practices) than does a Level 1 assessment through the use of more comprehensive investigation and review of available information, additional internal and external resources, and other relevant practices. It is conducted by an individual approved by the State, which may include the system operator. Minimum elements include review and identification of atypical events that could affect distributed water quality or indicate that distributed water quality was impaired; changes in distribution system maintenance and operation that could affect distributed water quality (including water storage); source and treatment considerations that bear on distributed water quality, where appropriate (e.g., whether a ground water system is disinfected); existing water quality monitoring data; and inadequacies in sample sites, sampling protocol, and sample processing. The system must conduct the assessment consistent with any State directives that tailor specific assessment elements with respect to the size and type of the system and the size, type, and characteristics of the distribution system. The system must comply with any expedited actions or additional actions required by the State in the case of an E. coli MCL violation.

"Locational running annual average (LRAA)" is the average of sample analytical results for samples taken at a particular monitoring location during the previous four calendar quarters.

"Major Bacteriological Routine Monitoring Violation" means that no routine bacteriological sample was taken as required by R309-210-5(1).

"Major Bacteriological Repeat Monitoring Violation" - means that no repeat bacteriological sample was taken as required by R309-210-5(2).

"Major Chemical Monitoring Violation" - means that no initial background chemical sample was taken as required in R309-515-4(5).

"Management area" means the area outside of zone one and within a two-mile radius where the Optional Two-mile Radius Delineation Procedure has been used to identify a protection area.

For wells, land may be excluded from the DWSP management area at locations where it is more than 100 feet lower in elevation than the total drilled depth of the well.

For springs and tunnels, the DWSP management area is all land at elevation equal to or higher than, and within a two-mile radius, of the spring or tunnel collection area. The DWSP management area also includes all land lower in elevation than, and within 100 horizontal feet, of the spring or tunnel collection area. The elevation datum to be used is the point of water collection. Land may also be excluded from the DWSP management area at locations where it is separated from the ground water source by a surface drainage which is lower in elevation than the spring or tunnel collection area.

"Man-Made Beta Particle and Photon Emitters" means all radionuclides emitting beta particles and/or photons listed in Maximum Permissible Body Burdens and maximum Permissible Concentration of Radionuclides in Air or Water for Occupational Exposure, "NBS Handbook 69," except the daughter products of thorium-232, uranium-235 and uranium-238.

"Master Plan" (or "System Capacity and Expansion Report") means a organized plan addressing the present and future demands that will be placed on a public drinking water system by expanding into undeveloped areas or accepting additional service contracts. As a minimum a satisfactory master plan must contain the following elements:

(a) A listing of sources including: the source name, the source type (i.e., well, spring, reservoir, stream etc.) for both existing sources and additional sources identified as needed for system expansion, the minimum reliable flow of the source in gallons per minute, the status of the water right and the flow capacity of the water right.

(b) A listing of storage facilities including: the storage tank name, the type of material (i.e., steel, concrete etc.), the diameter, the total volume in gallons, and the elevation of the overflow, the lowest level (elevation) of the equalization volume, the fire suppression volume, and the emergency volume or the outlet.

(c) A listing of pump stations including: the pump station name and the pumping capacity in gallons per minute. Under this requirement one does not need to list well pump stations as they are provided in requirement (a) above.

(d) A listing of the various pipeline sizes within the distribution system with their associated pipe materials and, if readily available, the approximate length of pipe in each size and material category. A schematic of the distribution piping showing node points, elevations, length and size of lines, pressure zones, demands, and coefficients used for the hydraulic analysis required by (h) below will suffice.

(e) A listing by customer type (i.e., single family residence, 40 unit condominium complex, elementary school, junior high school, high school, hospital, post office, industry, commercial etc.) along with an assessment of their associated number of ERC'S.

(f) The number of connections along with their associated ERC value that the public drinking water system is committed to serve, but has not yet physically connected to the infrastructure.

(g) A description of the nature and extent of the area currently served by the water system and a plan of action to control addition of new service connections or expansion of the public drinking water system to serve new development(s). The plan shall include current number of service connections and water usage as well as land use projections and forecasts of future water usage.

(h) A hydraulic analysis of the existing distribution system along with any proposed distribution system expansion identified in (g) above.

(i) A description of potential alternatives to manage system growth, including interconnections with other existing public drinking water systems, developer responsibilities and requirements, water rights issues, source and storage capacity issues and distribution issues.

"Maximum Contaminant Level" (MCL) means the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system.

"Maximum residual disinfectant level" (MRDL) means a level of a disinfectant added for water treatment that may not be exceeded at the consumer's tap without an unacceptable possibility of adverse health effects. For chlorine and chloramines, a PWS is in compliance with the MRDL when the running annual average of monthly averages of samples taken in the distribution system, computed quarterly, is less than or equal to the MRDL. For chlorine dioxide, a PWS is in compliance with the MRDL when daily samples are taken at the entrance to the distribution system and no two consecutive daily samples exceed the MRDL. MRDLs are enforceable in the same manner as MCLs pursuant to UT Code S 19-4-104. There is convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of waterborne microbial contaminants. Notwithstanding the MRDLs listed in R309-200-5(3), operators may increase residual disinfectant levels of chlorine or chloramines (but not chlorine dioxide) in the distribution system to a level and for a time necessary to protect public health to address specific microbiological contamination problems caused by circumstances such as distribution line breaks, storm runoff events, source water contamination, or cross-connections.

"Maximum residual disinfectant level goal" (MRDLG) means the maximum level of a disinfectant added for water treatment at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons would occur, and which allows an adequate margin of safety. MRDLGs are non-enforceable health goals and do not reflect the benefit of the addition of the chemical for control of waterborne microbial contaminants.

"Medium-size water system" for the purposes of R309-210-6 only, means a water system that serves greater than 3,300 and less than or equal to 50,000 persons.

"Membrane filtration" is a pressure or vacuum driven separation process in which particulate matter larger than 1 micrometer is rejected by an engineered barrier, primarily through a size-exclusion mechanism, and which has a measurable removal efficiency of a target organism that can be verified through the application of a direct integrity test. This definition includes that common membrane technologies of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis.

"Metropolitan area sources" means all sources within a metropolitan area. A metropolitan area is further defined to contain at least 3,300 year round residents. A small water system which has sources within a metropolitan system's service area, may have those sources classified as a metropolitan area source.

"MG" means million gallons and is one way of expressing a volume of water.

"MGD" means million gallons per day and is one way of expressing average daily water demands experienced by public water systems or the capacity of a water treatment plant.

"mg/L" means milligrams per liter and is one way of expressing the concentration of a chemical in water. At small concentrations, mg/L is synonymous with "ppm" (parts per million).

"Minor Bacteriological Routine Monitoring Violation" means that not all of the routine bacteriological samples were taken as required by R309-210-5(1).

"Minor Bacteriological Repeat Monitoring Violation" means that not all of the repeat bacteriological samples were taken as required by R309-210-5(2).

"Minor Chemical Monitoring Violation" means that the required chemical sample(s) was not taken in accordance with R309-205 and R309-210.

"Modern Recreation Camp" means a campground accessible by any type of vehicular traffic. The camp is used wholly or in part for recreation, training or instruction, social, religious, or physical education activities or whose primary purpose is to provide an outdoor group living experience. The site is equipped with permanent buildings for the purpose of sleeping, a drinking water supply under pressure, food service facilities, and may be operated on a seasonal or short term basis. These types of camps shall include but are not limited to privately owned campgrounds such as youth camps, church camps, boy or girl scout camps, mixed age groups, family group camps, etc.

"Near the first service connection" means one of the service connections within the first 20 percent of all service connections that are nearest to the treatment facilities.

"Negative Interest" means a loan having loan terms with an interest rate at less than zero percent. The repayment schedule for loans having a negative interest rate will be prepared by the Board.

"New ground water source of drinking water" means a public supply ground water source of drinking water for which plans and specifications are submitted to the Division after July 26, 1993.

"New surface water source of drinking water" means a public supply surface water source of drinking water for which plans and specifications are submitted to the Division after June 12, 2000.

"New Water System" means a system that will become a community water system or non-transient, non-community water system on or after October 1, 1999.

"Non-Community Water System" (NCWS) means a public water system that is not a community water system. There are two types of NCWS's: transient and non-transient.

"Non-distribution system plumbing problem" means a coliform contamination problem in a public water system with more than one service connection that is limited to the specific service connection from which a coliform-positive sample was taken.

"Nonpoint source" means any diffuse source of contaminants or pollutants not otherwise defined as a point source.

"Non-Transient Non-Community Water System" (NTNCWS) means a public water system that regularly serves at least 25 of the same nonresident persons per day for more than six months per year. Examples of such systems are those serving the same individuals (industrial workers, school children, church members) by means of a separate system.

"Not Approved" refers to a rating placed on a system by the Division and means the water system does not fully comply with all the Rules of R309 as measured by R309-400.

"NTU" means Nephelometric Turbidity Units and is an acceptable method for measuring the clarity of water utilizing an electronic nephelometer (see "Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater").

"Off-specification" means a UV facility is operating outside of the validated operating conditions, for example, at a flow rate higher than the validated range or a UVT below the validated range).

"Operator" means a person who operates, repairs, maintains, and is directly employed by a public drinking water system.

"Operator Certification Commission" means the Commission appointed by the Board as an advisory Commission on public water system operator certification.

"Operating Permit" means written authorization from the Director to actually start utilizing a facility constructed as part of a public water system.

"Optimal corrosion control treatment" for the purposes of R309-210-6 only, means the corrosion control treatment that minimizes the lead and copper concentrations at users' taps while insuring that the treatment does not cause the water system to violate any national primary drinking water regulations.

"Package Plants" refers to water treatment plants manufactured and supplied generally by one company which are reportedly complete and ready to hook to a raw water supply line. Caution, some plants do not completely comply with all requirements of these rules and will generally require additional equipment.

"PCBs" means a group of chemicals that contain polychlorinated biphenyl.

"Peak Day Demand" means the amount of water delivered to consumers by a public water system on the day of highest consumption, generally expressed in gpd or MGD. This peak day will likely occur during a particularly hot spell in the summer. In contrast, some systems associated with the skiing industry may experience their "Peak Day Demand" in the winter.

"Peak Hourly Flow" means the maximum hourly flow rate from a water treatment plant and utilized when the plant is preparing disinfection profiling as called for in R309-215-14(2).

"Peak Instantaneous Demand" means calculated or estimated highest flowrate that can be expected through any water mains of the distribution network of a public water system at any instant in time, generally expressed in gpm or cfs (refer to section R309-510-9).

"Person" means an individual, corporation, company, association, partnership; municipality; or State, Federal, or tribal agency.

"Picocurie" (pCi) means that quantity of radioactive material producing 2.22 nuclear transformations per minute.

"Plan Approval" means written approval of contract plans and specifications for any public drinking water project which have been submitted for review prior to the start of construction pursuant to R309-105-6 and R309-500-6.

"Plant intake" refers to the works or structures at the head of a conduit through which water is diverted from a source (e.g., river or lake) into the treatment plant.

"Plug Flow" is a term to describe when water flowing through a tank, basin or reactors moves as a plug of water without ever dispersing or mixing with the rest of the water flowing through the tank.

"Point of Disinfectant Application" is the point where the disinfectant is applied and water downstream of that point is not subject to re-contamination by surface water runoff.

"Point of Diversion"(POD) is the point at which water from a surface source enters a piped conveyance, storage tank, or is otherwise removed from open exposure prior to treatment.

"Point-of-Entry Treatment Device" means a treatment device applied to the drinking water entering a house or building for the purpose of reducing contaminants in the drinking water distributed throughout the house or building.

"Point-of-Use Treatment Device" means a treatment device applied to a single tap used for the purpose of reducing contaminants in drinking water at that one tap.

"Point source" means any discernible, confined, and discrete source of pollutants or contaminants, including but not limited to any site, pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, animal feeding operation with more than ten animal units, landfill, or vessel or other floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be discharged.

"Political Subdivision" means any county, city, town, improvement district, metropolitan water district, water conservancy district, special service district, drainage district, irrigation district, separate legal or administrative entity created under Title 11, Chapter 13, Interlocal Cooperation Act, or any other entity constituting a political subdivision under the laws of Utah.

"Pollution source" means point source discharges of contaminants to ground or surface water or potential discharges of the liquid forms of "extremely hazardous substances" which are stored in containers in excess of "applicable threshold planning quantities" as specified in SARA Title III. Examples of possible pollution sources include, but are not limited to, the following: storage facilities that store the liquid forms of extremely hazardous substances, septic tanks, drain fields, class V underground injection wells, landfills, open dumps, landfilling of sludge and septage, manure piles, salt piles, pit privies, drain lines, and animal feeding operations with more than ten animal units.

The following definitions are part of R309-600 and clarify the meaning of "pollution source:"

(1) "Animal feeding operation" means a lot or facility where the following conditions are met: animals have been or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12 month period, and crops, vegetation forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the lot or facility. Two or more animal feeding operations under common ownership are considered to be a single feeding operation if they adjoin each other, if they use a common area, or if they use a common system for the disposal of wastes.

(2) "Animal unit" means a unit of measurement for any animal feeding operation calculated by adding the following numbers; the number of slaughter and feeder cattle multiplied by 1.0, plus the number of mature dairy cattle multiplied by 1.4, plus the number of swine weighing over 55 pounds multiplied by 0.4, plus the number of sheep multiplied by 0.1, plus the number of horses multiplied by 2.0.

(3) "Extremely hazardous substances" means those substances which are identified in the Sec. 302(EHS) column of the "TITLE III LIST OF LISTS - Consolidated List of Chemicals Subject to Reporting Under SARA Title III," (EPA 550-B-96-015). A copy of this document may be obtained from: NCEPI, PO Box 42419, Cincinnati, OH 45202. Online ordering is also available at http://www.epa.gov/ncepihom/orderpub.html.

"Potential contamination source" means any facility or site which employs an activity or procedure which may potentially contaminate ground or surface water. A pollution source is also a potential contamination source.

"ppm" means parts per million and is one way of expressing the concentration of a chemical in water. At small concentrations generally used, ppm is synonymous with "mg/l" (milligrams per liter).

"Practical Quantitation Level" (PQL) means the required analysis standard for laboratory certification to perform lead and copper analyses. The PQL for lead is .005 milligrams per liter and the PQL for copper is 0.050 milligrams per liter.

"Presedimentation" is a preliminary treatment process used to remove gravel, sand and other particulate material from the source water through settling before the water enters the primary clarification and filtration processes in a treatment plant.

"Primary Disinfection" means the adding of an acceptable primary disinfectant or ultraviolet light irradiation during the treatment process to provide adequate levels of inactivation of bacteria and pathogens. The effectiveness is measured through "CT" values, and the "Total Inactivation Ratio," and the ultraviolet light dose. Acceptable primary disinfectants are, chlorine, ozone, ultraviolet light, and chlorine dioxide (see also "CT" and "CT99.9").

"Principal Forgiveness" means a loan wherein a portion of the loan amount is "forgiven" upon closing the loan. The terms for principal forgiveness will be as directed by R309-705-8, and by the Board.

"Project Costs" include the cost of acquiring and constructing any drinking water project including, without limitation: the cost of acquisition and construction of any facility or any modification, improvement, or extension of such facility; any cost incident to the acquisition of any necessary property, easement or right of way; engineering or architectural fees, legal fees, fiscal agent's and financial advisors' fees; any cost incurred for any preliminary planning to determine the economic and engineering feasibility of a proposed project; costs of economic investigations and studies, surveys, preparation of designs, plans, working drawings, specifications and the inspection and supervision of the construction of any facility; interest accruing on loans made under this program during acquisition and construction of the project; and any other cost incurred by the political subdivision, the Board or the Department of Environmental Quality, in connection with the issuance of obligation of the political subdivision to evidence any loan made to it under the law.

"Protected aquifer" means a producing aquifer in which the following conditions are met:

(1) A naturally protective layer of clay, at least 30 feet in thickness, is present above the aquifer;

(2) the PWS provides data to indicate the lateral continuity of the clay layer to the extent of zone two; and

(3) the public supply well is grouted with a grout seal that extends from the ground surface down to at least 100 feet below the surface, and for a thickness of at least 30 feet through the protective clay layer.

"Public Drinking Water Project" means construction, addition to, or modification of any facility of a public water system which may affect the quality or quantity of the drinking water (see also section R309-500-6).

"Public Water System" (PWS) means a system, either publicly or privately owned, providing water through constructed conveyances for human consumption and other domestic uses, which has at least 15 service connections or serves an average of at least 25 individuals daily at least 60 days out of the year and includes collection, treatment, storage, or distribution facilities under the control of the operator and used primarily in connection with the system, or collection, pretreatment or storage facilities used primarily in connection with the system but not under his control (see 19-4-102 of the Utah Code Annotated). All public water systems are further categorized into three different types, community (CWS), non-transient non-community (NTNCWS), and transient non-community (TNCWS). These categories are important with respect to required monitoring and water quality testing found in R309-205 and R309-210 (see also definition of "water system").

"Raw Water" means water that is destined for some treatment process that will make it acceptable as drinking water. Common usage of terms such as lake or stream water, surface water or irrigation water are synonymous with raw water.

"Recreational Home Developments" are subdivision type developments wherein the dwellings are not intended as permanent domiciles.

"Recreational Vehicle Park" means any site, tract or parcel of land on which facilities have been developed to provide temporary living quarters for individuals utilizing recreational vehicles. Such a park may be developed or owned by a private, public or non-profit organization catering to the general public or restricted to the organizational or institutional member and their guests only.

"Reference UV Sensors (or Reference Sensors)" are off-line calibrated UV sensors that are used to assess the duty UV sensors' performance and to determine UV sensor uncertainty.

"Regional Operator" means a certified operator who is in direct responsible charge of more than one public drinking water system.

"Regionalized Water System" means any combination of water systems which are physically connected or operated or managed as a single unit.

"Rem" means the unit of dose equivalent from ionizing radiation to the total body or any internal organ or organ system. A "millirem" (mrem) is 1/1000 of a rem.

"Renewal Course" means a course of instruction, approved by the Subcommittee, which is a prerequisite to the renewal of a Backflow Technician's Certificate.

"Repeat compliance period" means any subsequent compliance period after the initial compliance period.

"Replacement well" means a public supply well drilled for the sole purpose of replacing an existing public supply well which is impaired or made useless by structural difficulties and in which the following conditions are met:

(1) the proposed well location shall be within a radius of 150 feet from an existing ground water supply well; and

(2) the PWS provides a copy of the replacement application approved by the State Engineer (refer to Section 73-3-28 of the Utah Code).

"Required Dose" is the UV dose required for a certain level of log inactivation. Required doses are set forth by the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR) and R309-215-15(19)(d)(i) Table 215-5 the UV Dose Table.

"Required reserve" means funds set aside to meet requirements set forth in a loan covenant/bond indenture.

"Residual Disinfectant Concentration" ("C" in CT calculations) means the concentration of disinfectant, measured in mg/L, in a representative sample of water.

"Restricted Certificate" means that the operator has qualified by passing an examination but is in a restricted certification status due to lack of experience as an operator.

"Roadway Rest Stop" shall mean any building, or buildings, or grounds, parking areas, including the necessary toilet, hand washing, water supply and wastewater facilities intended for the accommodation of people using such facilities while traveling on public roadways. It does not include scenic view or roadside picnic areas or other parking areas if these are properly identified

"Routine Chemical Monitoring Violation" means no routine chemical sample(s) was taken as required in R309-205, R309-210 and R309-215.

"Safe Yield" means the annual quantity of water that can be taken from a source of supply over a period of years without depleting the source beyond its ability to be replenished naturally in "wet years".

"Sanitary defect" means a defect that could provide a pathway of entry for microbial contamination into the distribution system or that is indicative of a failure or imminent failure in a barrier that is already in place.

"Sanitary Seal" means a cap that prevents contaminants from entering a well through the top of the casing.

"scfm/sf" means standard cubic foot per minute per square foot and is one way of expressing flowrate of air at standard density through a filter or duct area.

"Seasonal system" means a non-community water system that is not operated as a public water system on a year-round basis and starts up and shuts down at the beginning and end of each operating season. "Secondary Disinfection" means the adding of an acceptable secondary disinfectant to assure that the quality of the water is maintained throughout the distribution system. The effectiveness is measured by maintaining detectable disinfectant residuals throughout the distribution system. Acceptable secondary disinfectants are chlorine, chloramine, and chlorine dioxide.

"Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level" means the advisable maximum level of contaminant in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system.

"Secretary to the Subcommittee" means that individual appointed by the Director to conduct the business of the Subcommittee.

"Sedimentation" means a process for removal of solids before filtration by gravity or separation.

"Semi-Developed Camp" means a campground accessible by any type of vehicular traffic. Facilities are provided for both protection of site and comfort of users. Roads, trails and campsites are defined and basic facilities (water, flush toilets and/or vault toilets, tables, fireplaces or tent pads) are provided. These camps include but are not limited to National Forest campgrounds, Bureau of Reclamation campgrounds, and youth camps.

"Service Connection" means the constructed conveyance by which a dwelling, commercial or industrial establishment, or other water user obtains water from the supplier's distribution system. Multiple dwelling units such as condominiums or apartments, shall be considered to have a single service connection, if fed by a single line, for the purpose of microbiological repeat sampling; but shall be evaluated by the supplier as multiple "equivalent residential connections" for the purpose of source and storage capacities.

"Service Factor" means a rating on a motor to indicate an increased horsepower capacity beyond nominal nameplate capacity for occasional overload conditions.

"Service line sample" means a one-liter sample of water collected in accordance with R309-210-6(3)(b)(iii), that has been standing for at least 6 hours in a service line.

"Significant deficiencies" means defects in design, operation, or maintenance, or a failure or defects in design, operation, or maintenance, or a failure or malfunction of the sources, treatment, storage, or distribution system that the Director determines to be causing, or have potential for causing, the introduction of contamination into the water delivered to consumers.

"Single family structure" for the purposes of R309-210-6 only, means a building constructed as a single-family residence that is currently used as either a residence or a place of business.

"Small water system" means a public water system that serves 3,300 persons or fewer.

"Specialist" means a person who has successfully passed the written certification exam and meets the required experience, but who is not in direct employment with a Utah public drinking water system.

"Stabilized drawdown" means that there is less than 0.5 foot of change in water level measurements in a pumped well for a minimum period of six hours.

"Standard sample" means the aliquot of finished drinking water that is examined for the presence of coliform bacteria.

"SOCs" means synthetic organic chemicals.

"Stabilized Drawdown" means the drawdown measurements taken during a constant-rate yield and drawdown test as outlined in subsection R309-515-14(10)(b) are constant (no change).

"Stock Tight" means a type of fence that can prevent the passage of grazing livestock through its boundary. An example of such fencing is provided by design drawing 02838-3 titled "Cattle Exclosure" designed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Division of Technical Services (copies available from the Division).

"Subcommittee" means the Cross Connection Control Subcommittee.

"Supplier of water" means any person who owns or operates a public water system.

"Surface Water" means all water which is open to the atmosphere and subject to surface runoff (see also section R309-515-5(1)). This includes conveyances such as ditches, canals and aqueducts, as well as natural features.

"Surface Water Systems" means public water systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water as a source that are subject to filtration and disinfection (Federal SWTR subpart H) and the requirements of R309-215 "Monitoring and Water Quality: Treatment Plant Monitoring Requirements."

"Surface Water Systems (Large)" means public water systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water as a source that are subject to filtration and disinfection and serve a population of 10,000 or greater (Federal SWTR subpart P and L) and the requirements of R309-215 "Monitoring and Water Quality: Treatment Plant Monitoring Requirements."

"Surface Water Systems (Small)" means public water systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water as a source that are subject to filtration and disinfection and serve a population less than 10,000 (Federal SWTR subpart L, T and P (sanitary survey requirements)) and the requirements of R309-215 "Monitoring and Water Quality: Treatment Plant Monitoring Requirements."

"Susceptibility" means the potential for a PWS (as determined at the point immediately preceding treatment, or if no treatment is provided, at the entry point to the distribution system) to draw water contaminated above a demonstrated background water quality concentration through any overland or subsurface pathway. Such pathways may include cracks or fissures in or open areas of the surface water intake, and/or the wellhead, and/or the pipe/conveyance between the intake and the water distribution system or treatment.

"SUVA" means Specific Ultraviolet Absorption at 254 nanometers (nm), an indicator of the humic content of water. It is a calculated parameter obtained by dividing a sample's ultraviolet absorption at a wavelength of 254 nm (UV254) (in m-1) by its concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (in mg/L).

"System with a single service connection" means a system which supplies drinking water to consumers via a single service line.

"T" is short for "Contact Time" and is generally used in conjunction with either the residual disinfectant concentration (C) in determining CT or the velocity gradient (G) in determining mixing energy GT.

"Target Log Inactivation" means the specific log inactivation the PWS wants to achieve for the target pathogen using UV disinfection. The target log inactivation is driven by requirements of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR), Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR), Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR), Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR), and the log removal/inactivation requirements in R309-215-15, and the Groundwater Rule.

"Ten State Standards" refers to the Recommended Standards For Water Works, 1997 by the Great Lakes Upper Mississippi River Board of State Public Health and Environmental Managers available from Health Education Services, A Division of Health Research Inc., P.O. Box 7126, Albany, New York 12224, (518)439-7286.

"Time of travel" means the time required for a particle of water to move in the producing aquifer from a specific point to a ground water source of drinking water. It also means the time required for a particle of water to travel from a specific point along a surface water body to an intake.

"Total Inactivation Ratio" is the sum of all the inactivation ratios calculated for a series of disinfection sequences, and is indicated or shown as: "Summation sign (CTcalc)/(CTreq'd)." A total inactivation ratio equal to or greater than 1.0 is assumed to provide the required inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts. CTcalc/CT99.9 equal to 1.0 provides 99.9 percent (3-log) inactivation, whereas CTcalc/CT90 equal to 1.0 only provides 90 percent (1-log) inactivation.

"Too numerous to count" (TNTC) means that the total number of bacterial colonies exceeds 200 on a 47 mm diameter membrane filter used for coliform detection.

"Total Organic Carbon" (TOC) means total organic carbon in mg/L measured using heat, oxygen, ultraviolet irradiation, chemical oxidants, or combinations of these oxidants that convert organic carbon to carbon dioxide, rounded to two significant figures.

"Total Trihalomethanes" (TTHM) means the MCL for trihalomethanes. This is the sum of four of ten possible isomers of chlorine/bromine/methane compounds, all known as trihalomethanes (THM). TTHM is defined as the arithmetic sum of the concentrations in micro grams per liter of only four of these (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) rounded to two significant figures. This measurement is made by samples which are "quenched," meaning that a chlorine neutralizing agent has been added, preventing further THM formation in the samples.

"Training Coordinating Committee" means the voluntary association of individuals responsible for environmental training in the state of Utah.

"Transient Non-Community Water System" (TNCWS) means a non-community public water system that does not serve 25 of the same nonresident persons per day for more than six months per year. Examples of such systems are those, RV park, diner or convenience store where the permanent nonresident staff number less than 25, but the number of people served exceeds 25.

"Treatment Plant" means those facilities capable of providing any treatment to any waterserving a public drinking water system. (Examples would include but not be limited to disinfection, conventional surface water treatment, alternative surface water treatment methods, corrosion control methods, aeration, softening, etc.).

"Treatment Plant Manager" means the individual responsible for all operations of a treatment plant.

"Trihalomethanes" (THM) means any one or all members of this class of organic compounds.

"Trihalomethane Formation Potential" (THMFP) - these samples are collected just following disinfection and measure the highest possible TTHM value to be expected in the water distribution system. The formation potential is measured by not neutralizing the disinfecting agent at the time of collection, but storing the sample seven days at 25 degrees C prior to analysis. A chlorine residual must be present in these samples at the end of the seven day period prior to analysis for the samples to be considered valid for this test. Samples without a residual at the end of this period must be resampled if this test is desired.

"Turbidity Unit" refers to NTU or Nephelometric Turbidity Unit.

"Two-stage lime softening" is a process in which chemical addition and hardness precipitation occur in each of two distinct unit clarification processes in series prior to filtration.

"UDI" means under direct influence (see also "Ground Water Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water").

"Uncovered finished water storage facility" is a tank, reservoir, or other facility used to store water that will undergo no further treatment to reduce microbial pathogens except residual disinfection and is directly open to the atmosphere.

"Unprotected aquifer" means any aquifer that does not meet the definition of a protected aquifer.

"Unregulated Contaminant" means a known or suspected disease causing contaminant for which no maximum contaminant level has been established.

"Unrestricted Certificate" means that a certificate of competency issued by the Director when the operator has passed the appropriate level written examination and has met all certification requirements at the discipline and grade stated on the certificate.

"UV Dose" means the UV energy per unit area incident on a surface, typically reported in units of mJ/cm2 or J/m2. The UV dose received by a waterborne microorganism in a reactor vessel accounts for the effects on UV intensity of the absorbance of the water, absorbance of the quartz sleeves, reflection and refraction of light from the water surface and reactor walls, and the germicidal effectiveness of the UV wavelengths transmitted. The following terms are related to UV dose:

(1) "Reduction Equivalent Dose (RED)" means the UV dose derived by entering the log inactivation measured during full-scale reactor testing into the UV dose-response curve that was derived through collimated beam testing. RED values are always specific to the challenge microorganism used during experimental testing and the validation test conditions for full-scale reactor testing.

(2) "Required Dose" means the UV dose in units of mJ/cm2 needed to achieve the target log inactivation for the target pathogen. The required dose is specified in the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR).

(3) "Validated Dose" means the UV dose in units of mJ/cm2 delivered by the UV reactor as determined through validation testing. The validated dose is compared to the Required Dose to determine log inactivation credit.

(4) "Calculated Dose" - the RED calculated using the dose-monitoring equation that was developed through validation testing.

"UV Facility" means all of the components of the UV disinfection process, including (but not limited to) UV reactors, control systems, piping, valves, and building (if applicable).

"UV Intensity" means the UV power passing through a unit area perpendicular to the direction of propagation. UV intensity is used to describe the magnitude of UV light measured by UV sensors in a reactor or with a radiometer in bench-scale UV experiments.

"UV Reactor" means the vessel or chamber where exposure to UV light takes place, consisting of UV lamps, quartz sleeves, UV sensors, quartz sleeve cleaning systems, and baffles or other hydraulic controls. The UV reactor also includes additional hardware for monitoring UV dose delivery; typically comprised of (but not limited to): UV sensors and UVT monitors.

"UV Reactor Validation" is experimental testing to determine the operating conditions under which a UV reactor delivers the dose required for inactivation credit of Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, and viruses.

"UV Transmittance (UVT)" is a measure of the fraction of incident light transmitted through a material (e.g., water sample or quartz). The UVT is usually reported for a wavelength of 254 nm and a pathlength of 1-cm. If an alternate pathlength is used, it should be specified or converted to units of cm-1.

"Validation Factor" - an uncertainty term that accounts for the bias and uncertainty associated with UV validation testing.

"Validated Operating Conditions" - the operating conditions under which the UV reactor is confirmed as delivering the dose required for LT2ESWTR inactivation credit. These operating conditions must include flow rate, UV intensity as measured by a UV sensor, and UV lamp status. The term "Validated Operating Conditions" is also commonly referred to as the "validated range" or the "validated limits."

"Virus" means a virus of fecal origin which is infectious to humans.

"Waterborne Disease Outbreak" means the significant occurrence of acute infectious illness, epidemiologically associated with the ingestion of water from a public water system, as determined by the appropriate local or State agency.

"Watershed" means the topographic boundary that is the perimeter of the catchment basin that contributes water through a surface source to the intake structure. For the purposes of surface water DWSP, if the topographic boundary intersects the state boundary, the state boundary becomes the boundary of the watershed.

"Water Supplier" means a person who owns or operates a public drinking water system.

"Water System" means all lands, property, rights, rights-of-way, easements and related facilities owned by a single entity, which are deemed necessary or convenient to deliver drinking water from source to the service connection of a consumer(s). This includes all water rights acquired in connection with the system, all means of conserving, controlling and distributing drinking water, including, but not limited to, diversion or collection works, springs, wells, treatment plants, pumps, lift stations, service meters, mains, hydrants, reservoirs, tanks and associated appurtenances within the property or easement boundaries under the control of or controlled by the entity owning the system.

In accordance with R309, certain water systems may be exempted from monitoring requirements, but such exemption does not extend to submittal of plans and specifications for any modifications considered a public drinking water project.

"Wellhead" means the physical structure, facility, or device at the land surface from or through which ground water flows or is pumped from subsurface, water-bearing formations.

"Wholesale system" is a public water system that treats source water as necessary to produce finished water and then delivers some or all of that finished water to another public water system. Delivery may be through a direct connection or through the distribution system of one or more consecutive systems.

"Zone of Influence" corresponds to area of the upper portion of the cone of depression as described in "Groundwater and Wells," second edition, by Fletcher G. Driscoll, Ph.D., and published by Johnson Division, St. Paul, Minnesota.

KEY

drinking water, definitions

Date of Enactment or Last Substantive Amendment

January 15, 2019

Notice of Continuation

March 13, 2015

Authorizing, Implemented, or Interpreted Law

19-4-104


Additional Information

Contact

For questions regarding the content or application of rules under Title R309, please contact the promulgating agency (Environmental Quality, Drinking Water). A list of agencies with links to their homepages is available at http://www.utah.gov/government/agencylist.html or from http://www.rules.utah.gov/contact/agencycontacts.htm.