Utah Administrative Code

The Utah Administrative Code is the body of all effective administrative rules as compiled and organized by the Division of Administrative Rules (see Subsection 63G-3-102(5); see also Sections 63G-3-701 and 702).

NOTE: For a list of rules that have been made effective since September 1, 2018, please see the codification segue page.

NOTE TO RULEFILING AGENCIES: Use the RTF version for submitting rule changes.


R313. Environmental Quality, Waste Management and Radiation Control, Radiation.

Rule R313-12. General Provisions.

As in effect on September 1, 2018

Table of Contents

R313-12-1. Authority.

The rules set forth herein are adopted pursuant to the provisions of Subsections 19-3-104(4) and 19-3-104(8) and Section 63J-1-504.

R313-12-2. Purpose and Scope.

It is the purpose of these rules to state such requirements as shall be applied in the use of radiation, radiation machines, and radioactive materials to ensure the maximum protection of the public health and safety to all persons at, or in the vicinity of, the place of use, storage, or disposal. These rules are intended to be consistent with the proper use of radiation machines and radioactive materials. Except as otherwise specifically provided, these rules apply to all persons who receive, possess, use, transfer, own or acquire any source of radiation, provided, however, that nothing in these rules shall apply to any person to the extent such person is subject to regulation by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. See also Section R313-12-55.

R313-12-3. Definitions.

As used in these rules, these terms shall have the definitions set forth below. Additional definitions used only in a certain rule will be found in that rule.

"A1" means the maximum activity of special form radioactive material permitted in a Type A package.

"A2" means the maximum activity of radioactive material, other than special form radioactive material, low specific activity, and surface contaminated object material permitted in a Type A package. These values are either listed in 10 CFR 71, Appendix A, which is incorporated by reference in Section R313-19-100 or may be derived in accordance with the procedures prescribed in 10 CFR 71, Appendix A, which is incorporated by reference in Section R313-19-100.

"Absorbed dose" means the energy imparted by ionizing radiation per unit mass of irradiated material. The units of absorbed dose are the gray (Gy) and the rad.

"Accelerator produced radioactive material" means material made radioactive by a particle accelerator.

"Act" means Utah Radiation Control Act, Title 19, Chapter 3.

"Activity" means the rate of disintegration or transformation or decay of radioactive material. The units of activity are the becquerel (Bq) and the curie (Ci).

"Adult" means an individual 18 or more years of age.

"Address of use" means the building or buildings that are identified on the license and where radioactive material may be received, used or stored.

"Advanced practice registered nurse" means an individual licensed by this state to engage in the practice of advanced practice registered nursing. See Sections 58-31b-101 through 58-31b-801, Nurse Practice Act.

"Agreement State" means a state with which the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Atomic Energy Commission has entered into an effective agreement under Section 274 b. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (73 Stat. 689).

"Airborne radioactive material" means a radioactive material dispersed in the air in the form of dusts, fumes, particulates, mists, vapors, or gases.

"Airborne radioactivity area" means: a room, enclosure, or area in which airborne radioactive material exists in concentrations:

(a) In excess of the derived air concentrations (DACs), specified in Rule R313-15, or

(b) To such a degree that an individual present in the area without respiratory protective equipment could exceed, during the hours an individual is present in a week, an intake of 0.6 percent of the annual limit on intake (ALI), or 12 DAC hours.

"As low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits as is practical, consistent with the purpose for which the licensed or registered activity is undertaken, taking into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to benefits to the public health and safety, and other societal and socioeconomic considerations, and in relation to utilization of nuclear energy and licensed or registered sources of radiation in the public interest.

"Area of use" means a portion of an address of use that has been set aside for the purpose of receiving, using, or storing radioactive material.

"Background radiation" means radiation from cosmic sources; naturally occurring radioactive materials, including radon, except as a decay product of source or special nuclear material, and including global fallout as it exists in the environment from the testing of nuclear explosive devices or from past nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl that contribute to background radiation and are not under the control of the licensee. "Background radiation" does not include sources of radiation from radioactive materials regulated by the Division of Waste Management and Radiation Control under the Radiation Control Act or Rules.

"Becquerel" (Bq) means the SI unit of activity. One becquerel is equal to one disintegration or transformation per second.

"Bioassay" means the determination of kinds, quantities or concentrations, and in some cases, the locations of radioactive material in the human body, whether by direct measurement (in vivo counting) or by analysis and evaluation of materials excreted or removed from the human body. For purposes of these rules, "radiobioassay" is an equivalent term.

"Board" means the Waste Management and Radiation Control Board created under Section 19-1-106.

"Byproduct material" means:

(a) a radioactive material, with the exception of special nuclear material, yielded in or made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or utilizing special nuclear material;

(b) the tailings or wastes produced by the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from any ore processed primarily for its source material content, including discrete surface wastes resulting from uranium solution extraction processes. Underground ore bodies depleted by these solution extraction operations do not constitute "byproduct material" within this definition;

(c) (i) a discrete source of radium-226 that is produced, extracted, or converted after extraction, before, on, or after August 8, 2005, for use for a commercial, medical, or research activity; or

(ii) material that

(A) has been made radioactive by use of a particle accelerator; and

(B) is produced, extracted, or converted after extraction, before, on, or after August 8, 2005, for use for a commercial, medical, or research activity; and

(d) a discrete source of naturally occurring radioactive material, other than source material, that

(i) The Commission, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the head of any other appropriate Federal agency, has determined would pose a threat similar to the threat posed by a discrete source of radium-226 to the public health and safety or the common defense and security; and

(ii) Before, on, or after August 8, 2005, is extracted or converted after extraction for use in a commercial, medical, or research activity.

"Calibration" means the determination of:

(a) the response or reading of an instrument relative to a series of known radiation values over the range of the instrument; or

(b) the strength of a source of radiation relative to a standard.

"CFR" means Code of Federal Regulations.

"Chelating agent" means a chemical ligand that can form coordination compounds in which the ligand occupies more than one coordination position. The agents include beta diketones, certain proteins, amine polycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, gluconic acid, and polycarboxylic acids.

"Chiropractor" means an individual licensed by this state to engage in the practice of chiropractic. See Sections 58-73-101 through 58-73-701, Chiropractic Physician Practice Act.

"Collective dose" means the sum of the individual doses received in a given period of time by a specified population from exposure to a specified source of radiation.

"Commencement of construction" means taking any action defined as "construction" or any other activity at the site of a facility subject to these rules that have a reasonable nexus to radiological health and safety.

"Commission" means the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

"Committed dose equivalent" (HT,50), means the dose equivalent to organs or tissues of reference (T), that will be received from an intake of radioactive material by an individual during the 50-year period following the intake.

"Committed effective dose equivalent" (HE,50), is the sum of the products of the weighting factors applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated and the committed dose equivalent to each of these organs or tissues.

"Consortium" means an association of medical use licensees and a PET radionuclide production facility in the same geographical area that jointly own or share in the operation and maintenance cost of the PET radionuclide production facility that produces PET radionuclides for use in producing radioactive drugs within the consortium for noncommercial distributions among its associated members for medical use. The PET radionuclide production facility within the consortium must be located at an educational institution, a Federal facility, or a medical facility.

"Construction" means the installation of wells associated with radiological operations; for example, production, injection, or monitoring well networks associated with in-situ recovery or other facilities; the installation of foundations, or in-place assembly, erection, fabrication, or testing for any structure, system, or component of a facility or activity subject to these rules that are related to radiological safety or security. The term "construction" does not include:

(a) changes for temporary use of the land for public recreational purposes;

(b) site exploration, including necessary borings to determine foundation conditions or other preconstruction monitoring to establish background information related to the suitability of the site, the environmental impacts of construction or operation, or the protection of environmental values;

(c) preparation of the site for construction of the facility, including clearing of the site, grading, installation of drainage, erosion and other environmental mitigation measures, and construction of temporary roads and borrow areas;

(d) erection of fences and other access control measures that are not related to the safe use of, or security of, radiological materials subject to this part;

(e) excavation;

(f) erection of support buildings; for example, construction equipment storage sheds, warehouse and shop facilities, utilities, concrete mixing plants, docking and unloading facilities, and office buildings; for use in connection with the construction of the facility;

(g) building of service facilities; for example, paved roads, parking lots, railroad spurs, exterior utility and lighting systems, potable water systems, sanitary sewerage treatment facilities, and transmission lines;

(h) procurement or fabrication of components or portions of the proposed facility occurring at other than the final, in-place location at the facility; or

(i) taking any other action that has no reasonable nexus to radiological health and safety.

"Controlled area" means an area, outside of a restricted area but inside the site boundary, access to which can be limited by the licensee or registrant for any reason.

"Critical group" means the group of individuals reasonably expected to receive the greatest exposure to residual radioactivity for any applicable set of circumstances.

"Curie" means a unit of measurement of activity. One curie (Ci) is that quantity of radioactive material which decays at the rate of 3.7 x 10 to the tenth power disintegrations or transformations per second (dps or tps).

"Cyclotron" means a particle accelerator in which the charged particles travel in an outward spiral or circular path. A cyclotron accelerates charged particles at energies usually in excess of 10 megaelectron volts and is commonly used for production of short half-life radionuclides for medical use.

"Decommission" means to remove a facility or site safely from service and reduce residual radioactivity to a level that permits:

(a) release of property for unrestricted use and termination of the license; or

(b) release of the property under restricted conditions and termination of the license.

"Deep dose equivalent" (Hd), which applies to external whole body exposure, means the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of one centimeter (1000 mg/cm2).

"Dentist" means an individual licensed by this state to engage in the practice of dentistry. See sections 58-69-101 through 58-69-806, Dentist and Dental Hygienist Practice Act.

"Department" means the Utah Department of Environmental Quality.

"Depleted uranium" means the source material uranium in which the isotope uranium-235 is less than 0.711 weight percent of the total uranium present. Depleted uranium does not include special nuclear material.

"Diffuse source" means a radionuclide that has been unintentionally produced or concentrated during the processing of materials for use for commercial, medical, or research activities.

"Director" means the Director of the Division of Waste Management and Radiation Control.

"Discrete source" means a radionuclide that has been processed so that its concentration within a material has been purposely increased for use for commercial, medical, or research activities.

"Distinguishable from background" means that the detectable concentration of a radionuclide is statistically different from the background concentration of that radionuclide in the vicinity of the site or, in the case of structures, in similar materials using adequate measurement technology, survey, and statistical techniques.

"Dose" is a generic term that means absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent, committed dose equivalent, committed effective dose equivalent, or total effective dose equivalent. For purposes of these rules, "radiation dose" is an equivalent term.

"Dose equivalent" (HT), means the product of the absorbed dose in tissue, quality factor, and other necessary modifying factors at the location of interest. The units of dose equivalent are the sievert (Sv) and rem.

"Dose limits" means the permissible upper bounds of radiation doses established in accordance with these rules. For purpose of these rules, "limits" is an equivalent term.

"Effective dose equivalent" (HE), means the sum of the products of the dose equivalent to each organ or tissue (HT), and the weighting factor (wT,) applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated.

"Embryo/fetus" means the developing human organism from conception until the time of birth.

"Entrance or access point" means an opening through which an individual or extremity of an individual could gain access to radiation areas or to licensed or registered radioactive materials. This includes entry or exit portals of sufficient size to permit human entry, irrespective of their intended use.

"Explosive material" means a chemical compound, mixture, or device which produces a substantial instantaneous release of gas and heat spontaneously or by contact with sparks or flame.

"EXPOSURE" when capitalized, means the quotient of dQ by dm where "dQ" is the absolute value of the total charge of the ions of one sign produced in air when all the electrons, both negatrons and positrons, liberated by photons in a volume element of air having a mass of "dm" are completely stopped in air. The special unit of EXPOSURE is the roentgen (R). See Section R313-12-20 Units of exposure and dose for the SI equivalent. For purposes of these rules, this term is used as a noun.

"Exposure" when not capitalized as the above term, means being exposed to ionizing radiation or to radioactive material. For purposes of these rules, this term is used as a verb.

"EXPOSURE rate" means the EXPOSURE per unit of time, such as roentgen per minute and milliroentgen per hour.

"External dose" means that portion of the dose equivalent received from a source of radiation outside the body.

"Extremity" means hand, elbow, arm below the elbow, foot, knee, and leg below the knee.

"Facility" means the location within one building, vehicle, or under one roof and under the same administrative control

(a) at which the use, processing or storage of radioactive material is or was authorized; or

(b) at which one or more radiation-producing machines or radioactivity-inducing machines are installed or located.

"Former United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) or United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed facilities" means nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, uranium enrichment plants, or critical mass experimental facilities where AEC or NRC licenses have been terminated.

"Generally applicable environmental radiation standards" means standards issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, that impose limits on radiation exposures or levels, or concentrations or quantities of radioactive material, in the general environment outside the boundaries of locations under the control of persons possessing or using radioactive material.

"Gray" (Gy) means the SI unit of absorbed dose. One gray is equal to an absorbed dose of one joule per kilogram.

"Hazardous waste" means those wastes designated as hazardous by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency rules in 40 CFR Part 261.

"Healing arts" means the disciplines of medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, chiropractic, and podiatry.

"High radiation area" means an area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels from radiation sources external to the body could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of one mSv (0.1 rem), in one hour at 30 centimeters from the source of radiation or from a surface that the radiation penetrates. For purposes of these rules, rooms or areas in which diagnostic x-ray systems are used for healing arts purposes are not considered high radiation areas.

"Human use" means the intentional internal or external administration of radiation or radioactive material to human beings.

"Individual" means a human being.

"Individual monitoring" means the assessment of:

(a) dose equivalent, by the use of individual monitoring devices or, by the use of survey data; or

(b) committed effective dose equivalent by bioassay or by determination of the time weighted air concentrations to which an individual has been exposed, that is, DAC-hours.

"Individual monitoring devices" means devices designed to be worn by a single individual for the assessment of dose equivalent. For purposes of these rules, individual monitoring equipment and personnel monitoring equipment are equivalent terms. Examples of individual monitoring devices are film badges, thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD's), pocket ionization chambers, and personal air sampling devices.

"Inspection" means an official examination or observation including, but not limited to, tests, surveys, and monitoring to determine compliance with rules, orders, requirements and conditions applicable to radiation sources.

"Interlock" means a device arranged or connected requiring the occurrence of an event or condition before a second condition can occur or continue to occur.

"Internal dose" means that portion of the dose equivalent received from radioactive material taken into the body.

"Lens dose equivalent" (LDE) applies to the external exposure of the lens of the eye and is taken as the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 0.3 centimeter (300 mg/cm2).

"License" means a license issued by the Director in accordance with the rules adopted by the Board.

"Licensee" means a person who is licensed by the Department in accordance with these rules and the Act.

"Licensed or registered material" means radioactive material, received, possessed, used or transferred or disposed of under a general or specific license issued by the Director.

"Licensing state" means a state which, prior to November 30, 2007, was provisionally or finally designated as such by the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc., which reviewed state regulations to establish equivalency with the Suggested State Regulations and ascertained whether a State has an effective program for control of natural occurring or accelerator produced radioactive material.

"Limits". See "Dose limits".

"Lost or missing source of radiation" means licensed or registered sources of radiation whose location is unknown. This definition includes, but is not limited to, radioactive material that has been shipped but has not reached its planned destination and whose location cannot be readily traced in the transportation system.

"Major processor" means a user processing, handling, or manufacturing radioactive material exceeding Type A quantities as unsealed sources or material, or exceeding four times Type B quantities as sealed sources, but does not include nuclear medicine programs, universities, industrial radiographers, or small industrial programs. Type A and B quantities are defined in 10 CFR 71.4.

"Member of the public" means an individual except when that individual is receiving an occupational dose.

"Minor" means an individual less than 18 years of age.

"Monitoring" means the measurement of radiation, radioactive material concentrations, surface area activities or quantities of radioactive material, and the use of the results of these measurements to evaluate potential exposures and doses. For purposes of these rules, radiation monitoring and radiation protection monitoring are equivalent terms.

"Natural radioactivity" means radioactivity of naturally occurring nuclides.

"Nuclear Regulatory Commission" (NRC) means the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission or its duly authorized representatives.

"Occupational dose" means the dose received by an individual in the course of employment in which the individual's assigned duties for the licensee or registrant involve exposure to sources of radiation, whether or not the sources of radiation are in the possession of the licensee, registrant, or other person. Occupational dose does not include doses received from background radiation, from any medical administration the individual has received, from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released in accordance with Rule R313-32, from voluntary participation in medical research programs, or as a member of the public.

"Package" means the packaging together with its radioactive contents as presented for transport.

"Particle accelerator" means a machine capable of accelerating electrons, protons, deuterons, or other charged particles in a vacuum and of discharging the resultant particulate or other radiation into a medium at energies usually in excess of one megaelectron volt. For purposes of these rules, "accelerator" is an equivalent term.

"Permit" means a permit issued by the Director in accordance with the rules adopted by the Board.

"Permitee" means a person who is permitted by the Director in accordance with these rules and the Act.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, agency, political subdivision of this state, or another state or political subdivision or agency thereof, and a legal successor, representative, agent or agency of the foregoing.

"Personnel monitoring equipment," see individual monitoring devices.

"Pharmacist" means an individual licensed by this state to engage in the practice of pharmacy. See Sections 58-17b-101 through 58-17b-806, Pharmacy Practice Act.

"Physician" means both physicians and surgeons licensed under Section 58-67-301, Utah Medical Practice Act, and osteopathic physicians and surgeons licensed under Section 58-68-301, Utah Osteopathic Medical Practice Act.

"Physician assistant" means an individual licensed by this state to engage in practice as a physician assistant. See Sections 58-70a-101 through 58-70a-504, Physician Assistant Act.

"Podiatrist" means an individual licensed by this state to engage in the practice of podiatry. See Sections 58-5a-101 through 58-5a-501, Podiatric Physician Licensing Act.

"Practitioner" means an individual licensed by this state in the practice of a healing art. For these rules, only the following are considered to be a practitioner: physician, dentist, podiatrist, chiropractor, physician assistant, and advanced practice registered nurse.

"Protective apron" means an apron made of radiation-attenuating materials used to reduce exposure to radiation.

"Public dose" means the dose received by a member of the public from exposure to radiation or to radioactive materials released by a licensee, or to any other source of radiation under the control of a licensee or registrant. Public dose does not include occupational dose or doses received from background radiation, from any medical administration the individual has received, from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released in accordance with Rule R313-32, or from voluntary participation in medical research programs.

"Pyrophoric material" means any liquid that ignites spontaneously in dry or moist air at or below 130 degrees Fahrenheit (54.4 degrees Celsius) or any solid material, other than one classed as an explosive, which under normal conditions is liable to cause fires through friction, retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited and, when ignited, burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious transportation, handling, or disposal hazard. Included are spontaneously combustible and water-reactive materials.

"Quality factor" (Q) means the modifying factor, listed in Tables 1 and 2 of Section R313-12-20 that is used to derive dose equivalent from absorbed dose.

"Rad" means the special unit of absorbed dose. One rad is equal to an absorbed dose of 100 erg per gram or 0.01 joule per kilogram

"Radiation" means alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, neutrons, high speed electrons, high speed protons, and other particles capable of producing ions. For purposes of these rules, ionizing radiation is an equivalent term. Radiation, as used in these rules, does not include non-ionizing radiation, like radiowaves or microwaves, visible, infrared, or ultraviolet light.

"Radiation area" means an area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 0.05 mSv (0.005 rem), in one hour at 30 centimeters from the source of radiation or from a surface that the radiation penetrates.

"Radiation machine" means a device capable of producing radiation except those devices with radioactive material as the only source of radiation.

"Radiation safety officer" means an individual who has the knowledge and responsibility to apply appropriate radiation protection rules and has been assigned such responsibility by the licensee or registrant. For a licensee authorized to use radioactive materials in accordance with the requirements of Rule R313-32,

(1) the individual named as the "Radiation Safety Officer" must meet the training requirements for a Radiation Safety Officer as stated in Rule R313-32; or

(2) the individual must be identified as a "Radiation Safety Officer" on

(a) a specific license issued by the Director, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or an Agreement State that authorizes the medical use of radioactive materials; or

(b) a medical use permit issued by a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission master material licensee.

"Radiation source". See "Source of radiation."

"Radioactive material" means a solid, liquid, or gas which emits radiation spontaneously.

"Radioactivity" means the transformation of unstable atomic nuclei by the emission of radiation.

"Radiobioassay". See "Bioassay".

"Registrant" means any person who is registered with respect to radioactive materials or radiation machines with the Director or is legally obligated to register with the Director pursuant to these rules and the Act.

"Registration" means registration with the Director in accordance with the rules adopted by the Board.

"Regulations of the U.S. Department of Transportation" means 49 CFR 100 through 189 and 49 CFR 390 through 397, as referenced in 49 CFR 177.

"Rem" means the special unit of any of the quantities expressed as dose equivalent. The dose equivalent in rem is equal to the absorbed dose in rad multiplied by the quality factor. One rem equals 0.01 sievert (Sv).

"Research and development" means:

(a) theoretical analysis, exploration, or experimentation; or

(b) the extension of investigative findings and theories of a scientific or technical nature into practical application for experimental and demonstration purposes, including the experimental production and testing of models, devices, equipment, materials, and processes. Research and development does not include the internal or external administration of radiation or radioactive material to human beings.

"Residual radioactivity" means radioactivity in structures, materials, soils, groundwater, and other media at a site resulting from activities under the licensee's control. This includes radioactivity from all licensed and unlicensed sources used by the licensee, but excludes background radiation. It also includes radioactive materials remaining at the site as a result of routine or accidental releases of radioactive material at the site and previous burials at the site, even if those burials were made in accordance with the provisions of Rule R313-15.

"Restricted area" means an area, access to which is limited by the licensee or registrant for the purpose of protecting individuals against undue risks from exposure to sources of radiation. A "Restricted area" does not include areas used as residential quarters, but separate rooms in a residential building may be set apart as a restricted area.

"Roentgen" (R) means the special unit of EXPOSURE. One roentgen equals 2.58 x 10 to the -4 power coulombs per kilogram of air. See EXPOSURE.

"Sealed source" means radioactive material that is permanently bonded or fixed in a capsule or matrix designed to prevent release and dispersal of the radioactive material under the most severe conditions which are likely to be encountered in normal use and handling.

"Sealed source and device registry" means the national registry that contains all the registration certificates, generated by both NRC and the Agreement States, that summarize the radiation safety information for the sealed sources and devices and describe the licensing and use conditions approved for the product.

"Shallow dose equivalent" (Hs) which applies to the external exposure of the skin of the whole body or the skin of an extremity, is taken as the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 0.007 centimeter (seven mg per square centimeter).

"SI" means an abbreviation of the International System of Units.

"Sievert" (Sv) means the SI unit of any of the quantities expressed as dose equivalent. The dose equivalent in sievert is equal to the absorbed dose in gray multiplied by the quality factor. One Sv equals 100 rem.

"Site boundary" means that line beyond which the land or property is not owned, leased, or otherwise controlled by the licensee or registrant.

"Source container" means a device in which sealed sources are transported or stored.

"Source material" means:

(a) uranium or thorium, or any combination thereof, in any physical or chemical form, or

(b) ores that contain by weight one-twentieth of one percent (0.05 percent), or more of, uranium, thorium, or any combination of uranium and thorium. Source material does not include special nuclear material.

"Source material milling" means any activity that results in the production of byproduct material as defined by (b) of "byproduct material".

"Source of radiation" means any radioactive material, or a device or equipment emitting or capable of producing ionizing radiation.

"Special form radioactive material" means radioactive material which satisfies the following conditions:

(a) it is either a single solid piece or is contained in a sealed capsule that can be opened only by destroying the capsule;

(b) the piece or capsule has at least one dimension not less than five millimeters (0.197 inch); and

(c) it satisfies the test requirements specified by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 10 CFR 71.75. A special form encapsulation designed in accordance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements in effect on June 30, 1983, and constructed prior to July 1, 1985, may continue to be used. A special form encapsulation designed in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 71.4 in effect on March 31, 1996, (see 10 CFR 71 revised January 1, 1983), and constructed before April 1, 1998, may continue to be used. Any other special form encapsulation must meet the specifications of this definition.

"Special nuclear material" means:

(a) plutonium, uranium-233, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, and other material that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, pursuant to the provisions of section 51 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, determines to be special nuclear material, but does not include source material; or

(b) any material artificially enriched by any of the foregoing but does not include source material.

"Special nuclear material in quantities not sufficient to form a critical mass" means uranium enriched in the isotope U-235 in quantities not exceeding 350 grams of contained U-235; uranium-233 in quantities not exceeding 200 grams; plutonium in quantities not exceeding 200 grams or a combination of them in accordance with the following formula: For each kind of special nuclear material, determine the ratio between the quantity of that special nuclear material and the quantity specified above for the same kind of special nuclear material. The sum of such ratios for all of the kinds of special nuclear material in combination shall not exceed one. For example, the following quantities in combination would not exceed the limitation and are within the formula:

((175(Grams contained U-235)/350) + (50(Grams U-233/200) + (50(Grams Pu)/200)) is equal to one.

"Survey" means an evaluation of the radiological conditions and potential hazards incident to the production, use, transfer, release, disposal, or presence of sources of radiation. When appropriate, such evaluation includes, but is not limited to, tests, physical examinations and measurements of levels of radiation or concentrations of radioactive material present.

"Test" means the process of verifying compliance with an applicable rule.

"These rules" means "Utah Radiation Control Rules".

"Total effective dose equivalent" (TEDE) means the sum of the effective dose equivalent for external exposures and the committed effective dose equivalent for internal exposures.

"Total organ dose equivalent" (TODE) means the sum of the deep dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to the organ receiving the highest dose as described in Subsection R313-15-1107(1)(f).

"U.S. Department of Energy" means the Department of Energy established by Public Law 95-91, August 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 565, 42 U.S.C. 7101 et seq., to the extent that the Department exercises functions formerly vested in the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, its Chairman, members, officers and components and transferred to the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration and to the Administrator thereof pursuant to sections 104(b), (c), and (d) of Public Law 93-438, October 11, 1974, 88 Stat. 1233 at 1237, effective January 19, 1975 known as the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and retransferred to the Secretary of Energy pursuant to section 301(a) of Public Law 95-91, August 14, 1977, 91 Stat. 565 at 577-578, 42 U.S.C. 7151, effective October 1, 1977 known as the Department of Energy Organization Act.

"Unrefined and unprocessed ore" means ore in its natural form prior to processing, like grinding, roasting or beneficiating, or refining. Processing does not include sieving or encapsulation of ore or preparation of samples for laboratory analysis.

"Unrestricted area" means an area, to which access is neither limited nor controlled by the licensee or registrant. For purposes of these rules, "uncontrolled area" is an equivalent term.

"Waste" means those low-level radioactive wastes containing radioactive material that are acceptable for disposal in a land disposal facility. For the purposes of this definition, low-level radioactive waste means radioactive waste not classified as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or byproduct material as defined in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of the definition of byproduct material found in Section R313-12-3.

"Week" means seven consecutive days starting on Sunday.

"Whole body" means, for purposes of external exposure, head, trunk including male gonads, arms above the elbow, or legs above the knees.

"Worker" means an individual engaged in work under a license or registration issued by the Director and controlled by a licensee or registrant, but does not include the licensee or registrant.

"Working level" (WL), means any combination of short-lived radon daughters in one liter of air that will result in the ultimate emission of 1.3 x 105 MeV of potential alpha particle energy. The short-lived radon daughters are, for radon-222: polonium-218, lead-214, bismuth-214, and polonium-214; and for radon 220: polonium-216, lead-212, bismuth-212, and polonium-212.

"Working level month" (WLM), means an exposure to one working level for 170 hours. 2,000 working hours per year divided by 12 months per year is approximately equal to 170 hours per month.

"Year" means the period of time beginning in January used to determine compliance with the provisions of these rules. The licensee or registrant may change the starting date of the year used to determine compliance by the licensee or registrant provided that the decision to make the change is made not later than December 31 of the previous year. If a licensee or registrant changes in a year, the licensee or registrant shall assure that no day is omitted or duplicated in consecutive years.

R313-12-20. Units of Exposure and Dose.

(1) As used in these rules, the unit of EXPOSURE is the coulomb per kilogram (C per kg). One roentgen is equal to 2.58 x 10-4 coulomb per kilogram of air.

(2) As used in these rules, the units of dose are:

(a) Gray (Gy) is the SI unit of absorbed dose. One gray is equal to an absorbed dose of one joule per kilogram. One gray equals 100 rad.

(b) Rad is the special unit of absorbed dose. One rad is equal to an absorbed dose of 100 erg per gram or 0.01 joule per kilogram. One rad equals 0.01 Gy.

(c) Rem is the special unit of any of the quantities expressed as dose equivalent. The dose equivalent in rem is equal to the absorbed dose in rad multiplied by the quality factor. One rem equals 0.01 Sv.

(d) Sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of any of the quantities expressed as dose equivalent. The dose equivalent in sievert is equal to the absorbed dose in gray multiplied by the quality factor. One Sv equals 100 rem.

(3) As used in these rules, the quality factors for converting absorbed dose to dose equivalent are shown in Table 1.

                                                    TABLE 1

                                     Quality Factors and Absorbed Dose Equivalencies

                                                    Absorbed Dose
                                                    Equal to a
                                      Quality       Unit Dose
 Type of Radiation                   Factor (Q)     Equivalent

X, gamma, or beta radiation and          1              1
 high-speed electrons
Alpha particles, multiple-charged       20              0.05
 particles, fission fragments and
 heavy particles of unknown charge
Neutrons of unknown energy              10              0.1
High energy protons                     10              0.1

     For the column in Table 1 labeled "Absorbed Dose Equal to
a Unit Dose Equivalent", the absorbed dose in rad is equal to
one rem or the absorbed dose in gray is equal to one Sv.
                                                            

(4) If it is more convenient to measure the neutron fluence rate than to determine the neutron dose equivalent rate in sievert per hour or rem per hour, as provided in Subsection R313-12-20(3), 0.01 Sv of neutron radiation of unknown energies may, for purposes of these rules, be assumed to result from a total fluence of 25 million neutrons per square centimeter incident upon the body. If sufficient information exists to estimate the approximate energy distribution of the neutrons, the licensee or registrant may use the fluence rate per unit dose equivalent or the appropriate Q value from Table 2 to convert a measured tissue dose in gray or rad to dose equivalent in sievert or rem.

                                                    TABLE 2

                                   Mean Quality Factors, Q, and Fluence Per Unit Dose
                                          Equivalent for Monoenergetic Neutrons

                                Fluence per   Fluence per
                                Unit Dose     Unit Dose
          Neutron     Quality   Equivalent    Equivalent
          Energy      Factor    neutrons      neutrons
            Mev         Q       cm-2 rem-1    cm-2  Sv-1

thermal  2.5 x 10-8     2        980 x 106     980 x 108
         1 x 10-7       2        980 x 106     980 x 108
         1 x 10-6       2        810 x 106     810 x 108
         1 x 10-5       2        810 x 106     810 x 108
         1 x 10-4       2        840 x 106     840 x 108
         1 x 10-3       2        980 x 106     980 x 108
         1 x 10-2       2.5     1010 x 106    1010 x 108
         1 x 10-1       7.5      170 x 106     170 x 108
         5 x 10-1      11         39 x 106      39 x 108
         1             11         27 x 106      27 x 108
         2.5            9         29 x 106      29 x 108
         5              8         23 x 106      23 x 108
         7              7         24 x 106      24 x 108
        10              6.5       24 x 106      24 x 108
        14              7.5       17 x 106      17 x 108
        20              8         16 x 106      16 x 108
        40              7         14 x 106      14 x 108
        60              5.5       16 x 106      16 x 108
         1 x 102        4         20 x 106      20 x 108
         2 x 102        3.5       19 x 106      19 x 108
         3 x 102        3.5       16 x 106      16 x 108
         4 x 102        3.5       14 x 106      14 x 108

     For the column in Table 2 labeled "Quality Factor", the
values of Q are at the point where the dose equivalent is
maximum in a 30 cm diameter cylinder tissue-equivalent phantom.
     For the columns in Table 2 labeled "Fluence per Unit Dose
Equivalent", the values are for monoenergetic neutrons incident
normally on a 30 cm diameter cylinder tissue equivalent phantom.
                                                            

R313-12-40. Units of Radioactivity.

For purposes of these rules, activity is expressed in the SI unit of becquerel (Bq), or in the special unit of curie (Ci), or their multiples, or disintegrations or transformations per unit of time.

(1) One becquerel (Bq) equals one disintegration or transformation per second.

(2) One curie (Ci) equals 3.7 x 1010 disintegrations or transformations per second, which equals 3.7 x 1010 becquerel, which equals 2.22 x 1012 disintegrations or transformations per minute.

R313-12-51. Records.

(1) A person who receives source or byproduct material pursuant to a license issued pursuant to the regulations in this part shall keep records showing the receipt, transfer, and disposal of this source or byproduct material as follows:

(a) The licensee shall retain each record of receipt of source or byproduct material as long as the material is possessed and for three years following transfer or disposition of the source or byproduct material.

(b) The licensee who transferred the material shall retain each record of transfer of source or byproduct material until the Director terminates each license that authorizes the activity that is subject to the recordkeeping requirement.

(c) The licensee shall retain each record of disposal of source or byproduct material until the Director terminates each license that authorizes the activity that is subject to the recordkeeping requirement.

(d) If source or byproduct material is combined or mixed with other licensed material and subsequently treated in a manner that makes direct correlation of a receipt record with a transfer, export, or disposition record impossible, the licensee may use evaluative techniques, such as first-in-first-out, to make the records that are required by Section R313-12-51 account for 100 percent of the material received.

(2) The licensee shall retain each record that is required by Section R313-12-51 or by license condition for the period specified by the appropriate rule or license condition. If a retention period is not otherwise specified by rule or license condition, each record must be maintained until the Director terminates the license that authorizes the activity that is subject to the recordkeeping requirement.

(3) A licensee or registrant shall maintain records showing the receipt, transfer, and disposal of all sources of radiation.

(4) Prior to license termination, each licensee authorized to possess radioactive material with a half-life greater than 120 days, in an unsealed form, may forward the following records to the Director:

(a) records of disposal of licensed material made under Sections R313-15-1002 (including burials authorized before January 28, 1981), R313-15-1003, R313-15-1004, and R313-15-1005; and

(b) records required by Subsection R313-15-1103(2)(d).

NOTE: 10 CFR 20.304 permitted burial of small quantities of licensed materials in soil before January 28, 1981, without specific U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission authorization. See 20.304 contained in the 10 CFR, parts 0 to 199, edition revised as of January 1, 1981.

(5) If licensed activities are transferred or assigned in accordance with Subsection R313-19-34(2), each licensee authorized to possess radioactive material, with a half-life greater than 120 days, in an unsealed form, shall transfer the following records to the new licensee and the new licensee will be responsible for maintaining these records until the license is terminated:

(a) records of disposal of licensed material made under Sections R313-15-1002 (including burials authorized before January 28, 1981), R313-15-1003, R313-15-1004, R313-15-1005, and R313-15-1008; and

(b) records required by Subsection R313-15-1103(2)(d).

(6) Prior to license termination, each licensee may forward the records required by Subsection R313-22-35(7) to the Director.

(7) Additional records requirements are specified elsewhere in these rules.

R313-12-52. Inspections.

(1) A licensee or registrant shall afford representatives of the Director, at reasonable times, opportunity to inspect sources of radiation and the premises and facilities wherein those sources of radiation are used or stored.

(2) A licensee or registrant shall make available to representatives of the Director for inspection, at any reasonable time, records maintained pursuant to these rules.

R313-12-53. Tests.

(1) A licensee or registrant shall perform upon instructions from a representative of the Director or shall permit the representative to perform reasonable tests as the representative deems appropriate or necessary including, but not limited to, tests of:

(a) sources of radiation;

(b) facilities wherein sources of radiation are used or stored;

(c) radiation detection and monitoring instruments; and

(d) other equipment and devices used in connection with utilization or storage of licensed or registered sources of radiation.

R313-12-54. Additional Requirements.

The Director may, by order, impose upon a licensee or registrant requirements in addition to those established in these rules that the Director deems appropriate or necessary to minimize any danger to public health and safety or the environment.

R313-12-55. Exemptions.

(1) The Board may, upon application or upon its own initiative, grant exemptions or exceptions from the requirements of these rules as it determines are authorized by law and will not result in undue hazard to public health and safety or the environment.

(2) U.S. Department of Energy contractors or subcontractors and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission contractors or subcontractors operating within this state are exempt from these rules to the extent that the contractor or subcontractor under his contract receives, possesses, uses, transfers, or acquires sources of radiation. The following contractor categories are included:

(a) prime contractors performing work for the U.S. Department of Energy at U.S. Government-owned or controlled sites, including the transportation of sources of radiation to or from the sites and the performance of contract services during temporary interruptions of the transportation;

(b) prime contractors of the U.S. Department of Energy performing research in, or development, manufacture, storage, testing or transportation of, atomic weapons or components thereof;

(c) prime contractors of the U.S. Department of Energy using or operating nuclear reactors or other nuclear devices in a United States Government-owned vehicle or vessel; and

(d) any other prime contractor or subcontractor of the U.S. Department of Energy or of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission when the state and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission jointly determine:

(i) that the exemption of the prime contractor or subcontractor is authorized by law; and

(ii) that under the terms of the contract or subcontract, there is adequate assurance that the work thereunder can be accomplished without undue risk to the public health and safety.

R313-12-70. Impounding.

Sources of radiation shall be subject to impounding pursuant to Section 19-3-111. Persons who have a source of radiation impounded are subject to fees established in accordance with the Legislative Appropriations Act for the actual cost of the management and oversight activities performed by representatives of the Director.

R313-12-100. Prohibited Uses.

(1) A hand-held fluoroscopic screen using x-ray equipment shall not be used unless it has been listed in the Registry of Sealed Source and Devices or accepted for certification by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Devices and Radiological Health.

(2) A shoe-fitting fluoroscopic device shall not be used.

R313-12-110. Communications.

All communications and reports concerning these rules, and applications filed thereunder, should be addressed to the Director of the Division of Waste Management and Radiation Control, P.O. Box 144880, 195 North 1950 West, Salt Lake City, Utah 84114-4880.

R313-12-111. Submission of Electronic Copies.

(1) All submissions to the Director not exempt in paragraph R313-12-111(5) shall also be submitted to the Director in electronic format. This requirement extends to all attachments to these documents.

(2) The electronic copy shall be a true, accurate, searchable and reproducible copy of the official submission, except that it need not include signatures or professional stamps.

(3) All electronic copies shall be submitted on a CD or DVD nonrewritable disc, except that documents smaller than 25 megabytes may be submitted by email.

(4) All documents shall be submitted in one of the following electronic formats, at the choice of the submitter:

(a) A searchable PDF document (a document that may be read and searched using Adobe Reader); or

(b) A Microsoft Word document.

(5) The requirements of this rule do not apply to:

(a) X-ray registration applications;

(b) Submissions shorter than 25 pages unless otherwise ordered by the Director;

(c) Public comments received during a formal public comment period;

(d) Correspondence received from individuals or organizations that are not currently regulated by the agency, unless that correspondence is about proposing an activity or facility that would be subject to agency regulation; and

(e) Documents used to make payments to the agency.

(6) If an official submission includes information for which business confidentiality is claimed or that is security-sensitive, this requirement applies only to that portion of the submission for which no confidentiality is claimed.

(7) The Director may waive the requirements of R313-12-111(1) for good cause.

KEY

definitions, units, inspections, exemptions

Date of Enactment or Last Substantive Amendment

October 13, 2017

Notice of Continuation

July 1, 2016

Authorizing, Implemented, or Interpreted Law

19-3-104; 19-6-104


Additional Information

Contact

For questions regarding the content or application of rules under Title R313, please contact the promulgating agency (Environmental Quality, Waste Management and Radiation Control, Radiation). A list of agencies with links to their homepages is available at http://www.utah.gov/government/agencylist.html or from http://www.rules.utah.gov/contact/agencycontacts.htm.