Utah Administrative Code
The Utah Administrative Code is the body of all effective administrative rules as compiled and organized by the Division of Administrative Rules (see Subsection 63G-3-102(5); see also Sections 63G-3-701 and 702).
NOTE: For a list of rules that have been made effective since October 1, 2019, please see the codification segue page.
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R331. Financial Institutions, Administration.
Rule R331-7. Rule Governing Leasing Transactions by Depository Institutions Subject to the Jurisdiction of the Department of Financial Institutions.
As in effect on October 1, 2019
Table of Contents
- R331-7-1. Authority, Scope and Purpose.
- R331-7-2. Definitions.
- R331-7-3. Acceptable Leases and Leasing Transactions for Depository Institutions.
- R331-7-4. Residual Dependence Restrictions for Depository Institutions.
- R331-7-5. Salvage Powers for Depository Institutions.
- R331-7-6. Sales-Type Capital Lease Restrictions for Depository Institutions.
- R331-7-7. Sale-Leaseback Restrictions for Depository Institutions.
- R331-7-8. Leveraged Lease Restrictions for Depository Institutions.
- R331-7-9. Accounting Requirements for Depository Institutions.
- Date of Enactment or Last Substantive Amendment
- Notice of Continuation
- Authorizing, Implemented, or Interpreted Law
(1) This rule is issued pursuant to Sections 7-1-301(15), and 7-1-501.
(2) This rule applies to all depository institutions and their subsidiaries subject to the jurisdiction of the Department of Financial Institutions.
(3) The purpose of this rule is to clarify acceptable employment of deposits and other funds involved in leasing or leasing related transactions.
(1) "Affiliate" means any company under common control with the depository institution excluding any subsidiary.
(2) "Assigned lease" means a lease having all of the following characteristics:
(a) Residual dependence greater than 5% of original equipment cost;
(b) Originated by a lessor - assignor who subsequently assigned its rights or sold a participation in the lease, payments, or ownership rights to the depository institution - assignee;
(c) The assigned lease is either a tax or non-tax lease;
(d) The depository institution may or may not have recourse to the assignor in addition to lessee recourse;
(e) The assigned lease is accounted for in accordance with R331-7-9.
(3) "Bargain call purchase option" means a written call purchase option which is a lessee option to purchase the asset as contrasted with a put purchase option which is a lessor right to force the lessee to purchase the asset. An option is considered a bargain if at the inception of the lease the purchase option exercise price is considered to be significantly less than the expected future fair market value of the property at the time the option becomes exercisable.
(4) "Capital lease vs. operating lease" means if at its inception a lease meets one or more of the (a) through (d) criteria and both of the (e) and (f) criteria, the lease shall be classified as a sales-type capital lease or a direct-financing capital lease, whichever is appropriate, by the lessor. Otherwise, it shall be classified as an operating lease.
(a) The lease automatically transfers ownership of the property to the lessee during or by the end of the lease term.
(b) The lease contains a bargain call purchase option.
(c) The lease term is equal to 75% or more of the estimated economic life of the leased property. However, if the beginning of the lease term falls within the last 25% of the total estimated economic life of the leased property, including earlier years of use, this criterion shall not be used for purposes of classifying the lease.
(d) The present value at the beginning of the lease term of the minimum lease payments, excluding that portion of the payments representing executory costs to be paid by the lessor, including any profit thereon, equals or exceeds 90% of the excess of the fair value of the leased property to the lessor at the inception of the lease over any related investment tax credit retained by the lessor and expected to be realized by him.
(i) However, if the beginning of the lease terms falls within the last 25% of the total estimated economic life of the leased property, including earlier years of use, this criterion shall not be used to classify the lease.
(ii) A lessor shall compute the present value of the minimum lease payments using the interest rate implicit in the lease.
(e) The collectability of the minimum lease payments shall be reasonably predictable. A lessor shall not be precluded from classifying a lease as a sales-type lease or as a direct financing lease simply because the receivable is subject to an estimate of uncollectability based on experience with groups of similar receivables.
(f) No important uncertainties surround the amount of unreimbursable costs yet to be incurred by the lessor under the lease. Important uncertainties might include commitments by the lessor to guarantee performance of the leased property in a manner more extensive than the typical product warranty or to effectively protect the lessee from obsolescence of the leased property. However, the necessity of estimating executory costs to be paid by the lessor shall not by itself constitute an important uncertainty as referred to herein.
(5) "Company" means a corporation, partnership, trust, association, joint venture, pool, syndicate, sole proprietorship, unincorporated organization or any form of business entity.
(6) "Control" means control as defined in Section 7-1-103.
(7) "Department" means the Department of Financial Institutions.
(8) "Depository institution" means depository institution as defined in Section 7-1-103, and any subsidiary.
(9) "Direct financing lease" means a capital lease other than a leveraged lease that does not give rise to a dealer's profit or loss to the lessor but that meets one or more of the first four criteria and both criteria (e) and (f) in Subsection (4) above. In a direct financing lease, the cost and fair market value of the leased property is the same at the inception of the lease.
(10) "FASB 13" means the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 13, Accounting for Leases, as amended, which outlines the required accounting procedures for accounting for leases by a lessor and is incorporated by reference. Other statements by the FASB, which are incorporated by reference, concerning leasing shall similarly be referred to by number such as "FASB 17" which defines initial direct costs of a lessor.
(11) "Gross investment in the lease" means the aggregate of the total minimum lease payments receivable and the unguaranteed residual in the lease.
(12) "Implicit interest rate" means the discount interest rate in a lease which when applied to the minimum lease payments, excluding that portion of the payments representing executory costs to be paid by the lessor, together with any profit thereon, and the unguaranteed residual value accruing to the benefit of the lessor, causes the aggregate present value at the beginning of the lease term to be equal to the fair value of the leased property to the lessor at the inception of the lease, minus any investment tax credit retained by the lessor and expected to be realized by him. This definition does not necessarily purport to include all factors that a lessor might recognize in determining his rate of return.
(13) "Leveraged lease" means a lease having all of the following characteristics:
(a) The lease involves at least three parties: a lessee, a long-term non-recourse creditor, and a lessor, commonly called the equity participant. A depository institution could be either the long-term non-recourse creditor or the equity participant;
(b) The financing provided by the long-term non-recourse creditor is non-recourse as to the general credit of the lessor although the creditor may have recourse to the specific property leased and the unremitted rentals relating to it. The amount of the non-recourse financing is sufficient to provide the lessor with substantial "leverage" in the transaction;
(c) Except for the exclusion of leveraged leases from the definition of a direct financing lease as set forth in R331-7-2(9), the lease otherwise meets the direct financing lease definition. A participation in a net, limited residual dependent lease purchased by a depository institution and a lease that meets the definition of a sales-type lease set forth in R331-7-2(4) shall not be considered a leveraged lease.
(14) "Limited residual dependent" means a lease from which the lessor can reasonably expect to realize a return of its investment in the leased property, plus the estimated cost of financing the property over the term of the lease, plus a reasonable profit, all of which are derived from:
(a) Lease rental payments;
(b) Estimated tax benefits; and
(c) The limited in amount estimated residual value of the property at the expiration of the initial non-cancelable term of the lease. The degree to which a depository institution may depend upon residual value to derive a profit from a lease transaction is subject to certain residual dependence restrictions set forth at Rule R331-7-4(1).
(15) "Minimum lease payments" means the minimum payments received on a lease which include any or all of the following:
(a) Guaranteed residual value by lessee or related party whether or not title transfers;
(b) Basic rentals during the non-cancelable lease term;
(c) Renewal rentals preceding a bargain call purchase option;
(d) Bargain call purchase options;
(e) Purchase option puts whether bargain or not;
(f) Third party residual guarantee, excluded by lessee as a criterion;
(g) Non-renewal penalties; and
(h) Unguaranteed residuals, including non-bargain purchase options, are excluded from minimum lease payments.
(16) "Net investment in the lease" means the gross investment less the unearned income.
(17) "Net lease" means a lease under which the depository institution will not directly provide or be obligated to provide for:
(a) The servicing, repair, or maintenance of the leased property during the lease term; however, the depository institution shall not be precluded from offering these same "full-service" benefits indirectly by subcontracting such service, repair, or maintenance to independent sub-contracting firms provided that such firms have the resources to meet the terms of the service contract;
(b) The purchasing of parts and accessories for the leased property, provided however, that improvements and additions to the leased property may be leased to the lessee upon its request in accordance with the net, limited residual dependence requirements;
(c) The loan of replacement or substitute property while the leased property is being serviced or repaired unless such loan or substitution of property is provided by an independent firm whose loan or replacement services have been subcontracted;
(d) The purchasing of insurance for the lessee, except where the lessee has failed in its contractual obligation to purchase or maintain the required insurance;
(e) The renewal of any license or registration for the property unless such action by the depository institution is necessary to protect its interest as an owner or financier of the property.
(18) "Non-tax lease" means a lease wherein the depository institution as a lessor does not receive the tax benefits of ownership of the leased property, and the residual dependence of the lessor is greater than 5% of the cost of the property.
(19) "Purchase option put" means a lessor right to force the lessee to purchase the asset.
(20) "Residual" means a residual payment or residual value in a lease which is represented by any of the following:
(a) A fixed purchase option fixed either as a dollar amount or as a percentage of cost of the leased property;
(b) A guaranteed residual where the residual value is guaranteed by the lessee, a third party, or the manufacturer or vendor;
(c) A fair market value purchase option where the option price is determined at the end of the lease based on the prevailing appraised market value;
(d) An unguaranteed residual such as in a closed end lease where the property reverts back to the lessor at the end of the lease term at which time the lessor has no guarantee as to the value of the property upon resale or release of the property. Fixed call purchase options that are not considered "bargain" will also be referred to as unguaranteed residuals.
(21) "Residual dependence" means depending upon residual value, including rentals and tax benefits, in a lease transaction in order to earn a required profit, recoup original capital investment, and cover financing costs. Full payout leases do not depend upon residual for profit whereas residual dependent leases do.
(22) "Sales-type lease" means a capital lease that gives rise to dealer's profit or loss to the lessor, in other words, the fair value of the leased property at the inception of the lease is greater or less than its cost, and that meets one or more of the criteria (a) through (d) and both criteria (e) and (f) in R331-7-2(4).
(a) Normally, a sales-type lease will arise when the depository institution acts as a dealer using leasing as a means of improving profit margins. Leases involving lessors that are primarily engaged in financing operations normally will not be sales-type leases if they qualify under R331-7-2(4), but will most often be direct financing leases, as described in R331-7-2(9).
(b) However, a lessor need not be a dealer to realize dealer's profit or loss on a transaction. For example, if a lessor, who is not a dealer, leases an asset that at the inception of the lease has a fair value that is greater or less than its cost or carrying amount, if different, such a transaction is a sales-type lease, assuming the criteria referred to are met.
(23) "Subsidiary" means subsidiary as defined in Section 7-1-103.
(24) "Tax lease" means a lease where the depository institution as a lessor is construed to be the tax owner of the property for income tax purposes and thereby receives the tax benefits of ownership including tax credits and depreciation, and the residual dependence of the lessor is greater than 5% of the cost of the property.
(25) "Total Capital" means the sum of capital stock, surplus, undivided profits, reserve for contingencies, reserves for loan losses, and subordinated notes and debentures with more than one year maturity.
(26) "Unearned income" means the difference between the gross investment in the lease and the cost or carrying amount, if different, of the leased property. Unearned income shall be increased by any deferral of the investment tax credit or any other tax credits and decreased by any initial direct costs incurred on direct financing leases.
(27) "Unguaranteed residual value" means the estimated residual value of the leased property exclusive of a portion guaranteed by the lessee, by any party related to the lessee or by a third party unrelated to the lessor. If the guarantor is related to the lessor, the residual value shall be considered as unguaranteed.
(28) "Used property" means property which has been in use for 90 days or more.
(1) A depository institution may enter into or purchase a participation in net, limited residual dependent leases wherein the depository institution:
(a) Becomes the legal or beneficial owner and lessor of specific real or personal property or otherwise acquires such property at the request of a lessee who wishes to lease it from the depository institution; or
(b) Becomes the owner and lessor of real or personal property by purchasing the property from another lessor in connection with its purchase of the related lease; and
(c) Incurs obligations incidental to its position as the legal or beneficial owner and lessor of the leased property, if the lease is a net, limited residual dependent lease representing a non-cancelable obligation of the lessee, notwithstanding the possible early termination of that lease; or
(d) Becomes the assignee of the lease payments from another lessor where the depository institution is not the legal owner or tax owner of such property.
(2) This rule shall apply to any tax lease, non-tax lease, or assigned lease irrespective of whether the depository institution funded such lease or assignment with deposits or private funds, debt or equity.
(3) The classification of whether this rule applies to any lease and the related terminology should not be confused with other accounting or tax terminology; but should be applied only for the purposes of this rule. Any depository institution and especially any savings and loan association should consult its tax accountant before entering into any lease transaction.
(4) A depository institution, when acting as a lessor of property, may assign leases to a third party funding source. A depository institution shall be considered an assignor of lease payments, residual of assigned leases, or both, if after entering into a lease as a lessor of property, it then borrows against the lease payments, residual, or both, by assigning them to another funding source. A depository institution shall be considered an assignee of lease payments, residual of assigned leases, or both, if another lessor assigns the lease payments, residual, or both, of its own lease to the depository institution in order to fund the lease.
(1) The residual dependence by a depository institution as a lessor of property on leases other than leases with terms of 24 months or less or automobiles and small trucks of one ton or less shall not exceed 30% of the acquisition cost of the property to the lessor unless the estimated residual value is guaranteed by a manufacturer of such property, or by a third party which is not an affiliate of the depository institution and the depository institution makes the determination that the guarantor has the resources to meet the guarantee.
(a) Any such guarantee of residual value by a third party is to be considered in addition to the requirement that the unguaranteed residual value estimate shall not exceed 30% of the acquisition cost of the property.
(b) However, the combined total of the 30% unguaranteed residual value and the guaranteed residual value may not exceed 50% of the leased property's acquisition cost without the prior written approval of the commissioner.
(2) In all cases, however, both the estimated residual value of the property and that portion of the guaranteed residual value relied upon by the lessor to satisfy the requirements of a limited residual dependent lease must be reasonable in light of the nature of the leased property and all relevant circumstances so that realization of the lessor's full investment plus the cost of financing the property primarily depends on the credit worthiness of the lessee and any guarantor of the residual value, and only secondarily on the residual market value of the leased property.
(1) If, in good faith, a depository institution believes that there has been an unanticipated change in conditions which threatens its financial position by significantly increasing its exposure to loss, the provisions of this rule shall not prevent the depository institution:
(a) As the owner, lessor, or both, under a net, limited residual dependent lease from taking reasonable and appropriate action to salvage or protect the value of the property or its interest arising under the lease;
(b) As the assignee of a lessor's interest in a lease, from becoming the owner and lessor of the leased property pursuant to its contractual right, or from taking any reasonable and appropriate action to salvage or protect the value of the property or its interest arising under the lease;
(c) Upon return of the leased property by the lessee to the depository institution at the expiration of the lease term or at any other time that the depository institution has possession of the property upon default by the lessee; the depository institution in order to avoid the cost and inherent liability of maintaining the property and to recoup its investment in the lease plus financing costs shall:
(i) Sell the property;
(ii) Release the property by entering into a new and separate net, limited residual dependent lease with a lessee;
(iii) Rent the property in which case the depository institution may be required to maintain the property in suitable condition to be used by another party on a rental basis. Such maintenance must be performed by an independent firm on a sub-contract basis only;
(iv) Transfer the property to a separately identified holding or repossessed property account within the depository institution.
(2) The provisions of this section do not prohibit a depository institution from including any provisions in a lease, or from making any additional agreements to protect its financial position or investment in the circumstances.
(1) Within the limitations of this rule, a depository institution, as lessor, shall be permitted to enter into a sales-type capital lease. Although a depository institution shall be allowed to earn a gross profit in a lease transaction in addition to interest income from the rentals and residual, it shall be precluded from inventorying property except for sample or display purposes.
(2) Although many equipment manufacturers and vendors require their dealers to inventory products prior to sale in order for the depository institution to be allowed to receive a wholesale price or comparable discount, the inventory of equipment prior to leasing the equipment is not permitted.
(3) A depository institution may purchase or acquire property in a direct lease situation only in response to a lessee's request for that specific property and any gross profit derived from volume discounts shall be accounted for separately from the lease.
A depository institution acting as a lessor may lease used property in a sale-leaseback transaction provided that:
(1) The aggregate of the total net investment in such sale-leaseback transactions, at any point, in time does not exceed 50% of the depository institution's total capital; and
(2) The sale-leaseback transactions are separately identified.
(1) Due to increased risk inherent in leveraged leasing, a depository institution may invest as a lessor in a leveraged lease provided that:
(a) The aggregate of such leveraged leases does not exceed 30% of the depository institution's total capital at any point in time; and
(b) The leveraged leases are separately identified.
(2) A depository institution shall not enter into a leveraged lease as a lessor, equity-participant unless the inherent tax benefits are useable by the depository institution.
(3) This rule does not preclude a depository institution from purchasing non-recourse interests in leveraged lease pools or joint ventures, provided that:
(a) The aggregate of such participations or interests does not exceed 30% of the depository institution's total capital; and
(b) The participations or interests are separately identified.
(1) The following restrictions and procedures shall be adhered to by a depository institution in accounting and reporting for acceptable leases and leasing transactions whether the depository institution is the assignor or the assignee. All other accounting and reporting procedures concerning leasing not covered by this rule shall be in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles as promulgated by the FASB, as amended.
(a) As lease payment revenue is received by the depository institution under a direct financing or sales-type capital lease, the lease payments shall be amortized or allocated between principal and interest income actuarially using the effective interest method over the lease term. A depository institution shall be precluded from using other approximations to the effective interest method such as the "Rule of 78's" method of amortizing lease payments.
(b) In accounting for a capital lease whether a sales-type or direct financing lease, a depository institution shall record the gross investment in the lease on the balance sheet allocated into its two components:
(i) Total minimum lease payments receivable; and
(ii) Unguaranteed residuals.
(c) The difference between the gross investment in the lease and the cost or carrying amount, if different, of the leased property shall be recorded as unearned income. Such unearned income shall be increased by any deferral of the investment tax credit or any other tax credits if the lessor elects deferral or if deferral is required by generally accepted accounting principles and decreased by any initial direct costs incurred on direct financing leases.
(d) Initial direct costs are limited to those costs incurred by the lessor that are directly associated with negotiating and consummating completed leasing transactions. Those costs include commissions, legal fees, cost of credit investigations, and costs of preparing and processing documents for new leases acquired.
(i) In addition, that portion of salespersons' compensation, other than commissions, and the compensation of other employees that is applicable to the time spent in the activities described above with respect to completed leasing transactions shall also be included in initial direct costs. That portion of salespersons' compensation and the compensation of other employees that is applicable to the time spent in negotiating leases that are not consummated shall not be included in initial direct costs.
(ii) No portion of supervisory and administrative expenses or other indirect expenses, such as rent and facilities cost, shall be included in initial direct costs.
(iii) In order to prevent initial overstatement by a depository institution of reported earnings and subsequent understatement of reported earnings throughout the remainder of the lease term, the depository institution shall not recognize initial direct costs in excess of 8% of the unearned income for leases which cost less than $10,000 at their inception; or initial direct costs in excess of 6% of the unearned income for leases which cost $10,000 or more at the inception of the lease. Initial direct costs shall include all costs directly attributable to consummating a lease as defined above.
(e) In accounting for the amount of initial direct costs associated with consummated direct financing capital leases, a depository institution is not required to treat as an initial direct cost the estimate of bad debt expense pertaining to a lease subject to the limitations of R331-7-9(d)(iii) which limits the maximum amount of initial direct costs.
(f) At any time during the lease term when it has been determined by a depository institution that there has been an impairment of the estimated residual value as initially recorded then such impairment of value shall be recognized in the period that the impairment of value has been determined.
(i) Any such impairment of guaranteed or unguaranteed residual value shall be recognized by a debit charge to income and a corresponding credit reduction to the unearned residual component of the gross investment in the lease.
(ii) A new implicit rate is to be computed for the lease using the reduced residual value and any remaining unearned income is to be recognized actuarially over the remaining lease term using the newly computed implicit rate.
(g) Differences between reported accounting net income for book purposes of a depository institution and its taxable income for the same period caused by the application of different accounting principles such as depreciation methods; or differences in how revenue is recognized; or because of any other timing differences, shall be shown in the depository institution's financial statements as a deferred tax credit or charge as required by interperiod tax allocation procedures explained in Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 11, Accounting for Income Taxes, as amended, which is incorporated by reference.
(2) The following restrictions and procedures shall be adhered to by a depository institution in accounting and reporting for assigned leases whether the depository institution is the assignor or the assignee.
(a) A depository institution, after having entered into a lease as a lessor, may assign the lease payment stream to a third party in order to fund the lease. To such an assignment, the depository institution becomes the assignor.
(i) If the assignment is non-recourse to the depository institution any profits or loss on the assignment shall be recognized at the time of the transaction except when the assignment is between related parties. The profit or loss is the difference between the net investment in the assigned lease and the loan funds received from the lender.
(ii) If the assignment is recourse to the depository institution or if it is non-recourse but between related parties, both the lease and the related loan should be shown separately in the financial statements of the depository institution.
(iii) The lease shall be shown on the balance sheet by recording the gross investment in the lease receivable and the unearned income account relating to the lease. The net of these two accounts represents the net investment in the lease. The gross investment in the lease receivable shall be further allocated and shown in the financial statements in its two separate components:
(A) Minimum lease payments, and
(b) A depository institution which has funded a lease originated by another lessor and taken an assignment of the lease may have funded the lease on either a recourse or a non-recourse basis to the lessor. In either case, the assignment shall be regulated by this rule only if the residual dependence is greater than 5% of the cost of the leased property, in which case the assignment shall be accounted for as described in R331-7-9(2)(a) above. If the residual dependence is equal to or less than 5% of the cost of the leased property then such assignment shall not be regulated by this rule and shall be accounted for as a loan.
(3) The following restrictions and procedures shall be adhered to by a depository institution in accounting and reporting for operating leases:
(a) Leases other than sales-type, direct financing, or leveraged capital leases are classified as operating leases.
(b) Revenue in an operating lease shall be recognized in conformity with FASB 13 paragraph 19.b.
(4) Accounting for leveraged leases, sale-leasebacks, and real estate sales shall be in conformity with FASB 13 procedures:
(a) Leveraged leases, FASB 13 paragraphs 41-47;
(b) Sale-leasebacks, FASB 13 paragraphs 32-34;
(c) Real estate leases, FASB 13 paragraphs 24-28.
financial institutions, leases
March 9, 2012
July 20, 2017
7-1-301(4); 7-1-301(8)(a); 7-1-501
For questions regarding the content or application of rules under Title R331, please contact the promulgating agency (Financial Institutions, Administration). A list of agencies with links to their homepages is available at http://www.utah.gov/government/agencylist.html or from http://www.rules.utah.gov/contact/agencycontacts.htm.