Utah Administrative Code
The Utah Administrative Code is the body of all effective administrative rules as compiled and organized by the Division of Administrative Rules (see Subsection 63G-3-102(5); see also Sections 63G-3-701 and 702).
NOTE: For a list of rules that have been made effective since April 1, 2019, please see the codification segue page.
NOTE TO RULEFILING AGENCIES: Use the RTF version for submitting rule changes.
R438. Disease Control and Prevention.
Rule R438-15. Newborn Screening.
As in effect on April 1, 2019
Table of Contents
- R438-15-1. Purpose and Authority.
- R438-15-2. Definitions.
- R438-15-3. Newborn Screening Advisory Committee.
- R438-15-4. Implementation.
- R438-15-5. Responsibility for Collection of the First Specimen.
- R438-15-6. Timing of Collection of First Specimen.
- R438-15-7. Parent Education.
- R438-15-8. Timing of Collection of the Second Specimen.
- R438-15-9. Criteria for Appropriate Specimen.
- R438-15-10. Abnormal Result.
- R438-15-11. Inadequate or Unsatisfactory Specimen, or QNS Specimen.
- R438-15-12. Testing Refusal.
- R438-15-13. Access to Medical Records.
- R438-15-14. Noncompliance by Parent or Legal Guardian.
- R438-15-15. Confidentiality and Related Information.
- R438-15-16. Blood Spots.
- R438-15-17. Retention of Blood Spots.
- R438-15-18. Reporting of Disorders.
- R438-15-19. Statutory Penalties.
- Date of Enactment or Last Substantive Amendment
- Authorizing, Implemented, or Interpreted Law
(1) The purpose of this rule is to facilitate early detection, prompt referral, early treatment, and prevention of disability and mental retardation in infants with certain genetic and endocrine disorders.
(2) Authority for the Newborn Screening program and promulgation of rules to implement the program are found in Sections 26-1-6, 26-1-30 and 26-10-6.
(1) "Abnormal test result" means a result that is outside of the normal range for a given test.
(2) "Appropriate specimen" means a blood specimen submitted on the Utah Newborn Screening form that conforms with the criteria in R438-15-9.
(3) "Blood spot" means a clinical specimen(s) submitted on the filter paper (specially manufactured absorbent specimen collection paper) of the Newborn Screening form using the heel stick method.
(4) "Department" means the Utah Department of Health.
(5) "Follow up" means the tracking of all newborns with an abnormal result, inadequate or unsatisfactory specimen or a quantity not sufficient specimen through to a normal result or confirmed diagnosis and referral.
(6) "Inadequate specimen" means a specimen determined by the Newborn Screening Laboratory to be unacceptable for testing.
(7) "Indeterminate result" means a result that requires another specimen to determine normal or abnormal status.
(8) "Institution" means a hospital, alternate birthing facility, or midwife service in Utah that provides maternity or nursery services or both.
(9) "Medical home/practitioner" means a person licensed by the Department of Commerce, Division of Occupational and Professional Licensing to practice medicine, naturopathy, or chiropractic or to be a nurse practitioner, as well as the licensed or unlicensed midwife who takes responsibility for delivery or the on-going health care of a newborn.
(10) "Metabolic diseases" means those diseases screened by the Department which are caused by an inborn error of metabolism.
(11) "Newborn Screening form" means the Department's demographic form with attached Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved filter paper medical collection device.
(12) "Quantity not sufficient specimen" or "QNS specimen" means a specimen that has been partially tested but does not have enough blood available to complete the full testing.
(13) "Unsatisfactory specimen" means an inadequate specimen.
(1) Newborn Screening Advisory Committee shall be composed of at least 9 members as follows:
(a) an individual with an advanced degree (MS/PhD/MD) in genetics or other relevant field, who will serve as Chair;
(b) a representative from the Utah Hospital Association;
(c) a community pediatrician;
(d) the Director of the Division of Disease Control and Prevention;
(e) an advocate or a consumer of a newborn screening services;
(f) clinical consultants for the Newborn Screening program;
(g) a representative from the Utah Public Health Laboratory
(h) a representative from the Newborn Screening Follow-up Program;
(i) a representative from the research community with knowledge about disorders considered for future addition to the newborn screening panel.
(2) The Department Executive Director shall approve committee membership with counsel from the advisory committee.
(3) The term of committee members shall be four years;
(a) members may serve up to three additional terms as requested;
(b) if a vacancy occurs in the committee membership for any reason, a replacement shall be appointed for the unexpired term in the same manner as the original appointment;
(c) a majority of the committee constitutes a quorum at any meeting. If a quorum is present, the action of the majority of members shall be the action of the advisory committee.
(4) The committee shall:
(a) advise the Department on policy issues related to newborn screening services;
(b) provide guidance to programs and functions within the Department having to do with newborn screening services and
(c) evaluate potential tests that could be added to newborn or population screening and make recommendations to the Department.
(1) Each newborn in the state of Utah shall submit to the Newborn Screening testing, except as provided in Section R438-15-12.
(2) The Department of Health, after consulting with the Newborn Screening Advisory Committee, will determine the disorders on the Newborn Screening Panel, based on demonstrated effectiveness and available funding. Disorders for which the infant blood is screened are:
(a) Biotinidase Deficiency;
(b) Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia;
(c) Congenital Hypothyroidism;
(f) Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders:
(i) Phenylketonuria (phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency and variants);
(ii) Tyrosinemia type 1(fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficiency);
(iii) Tyrosinemia type 2 (tyrosine amino transferase deficiency);
(iv) Tyrosinemia type 3 (4-OH-phenylpyruvate dioxygenase deficiency);
(v) Maple Syrup Urine Disease (branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency);
(vi) Homocystinuria (cystathionine beta synthase deficiency);
(vii) Citrullinemia (arginino succinic acid synthase deficiency);
(viii) Argininosuccinic aciduria (argininosuccinic acid lyase deficiency);
(ix) Argininemia (arginase deficiency);
(x) Hyperprolinemia type 2 (pyroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase deficiency);
(g) Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders:
(i) Medium Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency;
(ii) Very Long Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency;
(iii) Short Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency;
(iv) Long Chain 3-OH Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency;
(v) Short Chain 3-OH Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency;
(vi) Primary carnitine deficiency (OCTN2 carnitine transporter defect);
(vii) Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase I Deficiency;
(viii) Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase 2 Deficiency;
(ix) Carnitine Acylcarnitine Translocase Deficiency;
(x) Multiple Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency;
(h) Organic Acids Disorders:
(i) Propionic Acidemia (propionyl CoA carboxylase deficiency);
(ii) Methylmalonic acidemia (multiple enzymes);
(iii) Malonic Aciduria;
(iv) Isovaleric acidemia (isovaleryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency);
(v) 2-Methylbutiryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency;
(vi) Isobutyryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency;
(vii) 2-Methyl-3-OH-butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency;
(viii) Glutaric acidemia type 1 (glutaryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency);
(ix) 3-Methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase deficiency;
(x) 3-Ketothiolase deficiency;
(xi) 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl CoA lyase deficiency;
(xii) Holocarboxylase synthase (multiple carboxylases) deficiency;
(i) Cystic Fibrosis;
(j) Severe Combined Immunodeficiency syndrome; and
(k) Disorders of Creatine Metabolism and
(l) Spinal Muscular Atrophy
(1) If the newborn is born in an institution, the institution must collect and submit an appropriate specimen, unless the newborn is transferred to another institution prior to 48 hours of age.
(2) If the newborn is born outside of an institution, the practitioner or other person primarily responsible for providing assistance to the mother at the birth must arrange for the collection and submission of an appropriate specimen.
(3) If there is no other person in attendance of the birth, the parent or legal guardian must arrange for the collection and submission of an appropriate specimen.
(4) If the newborn is transferred to another institution prior to 48 hours of age, the receiving health institution must collect and submit an appropriate specimen.
The first specimen shall be collected between 24 and 48 hours of the newborn's life. Except:
(1) If the newborn is discharged from an institution before 48 hours of age, an appropriate specimen must be collected within four hours of discharge.
(2) If the newborn is to receive a blood transfusion or dialysis, the appropriate specimen must be collected immediately before the procedure, except in emergency situations where time does not allow for collection of the specimen. If the newborn receives a blood transfusion or dialysis prior to collecting the appropriate specimen the following must be done:
(a) Repeat the collection and submission of an appropriate specimen 7-10 days after last transfusion or dialysis for a second screening specimen;
(b) Repeat the collection and submission of an appropriate specimen 120 days after last transfusion or dialysis for a first screening specimen.
The person who has responsibility under Section R438-15-5 shall inform the parent or legal guardian of the required collection and submission and the disorders screened. That person shall give the second half of the Newborn Screening form to the parent or legal guardian with instructions on how to arrange for collection and submission of the second specimen.
A second specimen shall be collected between 7 and 16 days of age.
(1) The parent or legal guardian shall arrange for the collection and submission of the appropriate second specimen through an institution, medical home/practitioner, or local health department.
(2) If the newborn's first specimen was obtained prior to 24 hours of age, the second specimen shall be collected by fourteen days of age.
(3) If the newborn is hospitalized beyond the seventh day of life, the institution shall arrange for the collection and submission of the appropriate second specimen.
(1) The institution or medical home/practitioner collecting the appropriate specimen must:
(a) Use only a Newborn Screening form purchased from the Department. The fee for the Newborn Screening form is set by the Legislature in accordance with Section 26-1-6;
(b) Correctly store the Newborn Screening form;
(c) Not use the Newborn Screening form beyond the date of expiration;
(d) Not alter the Newborn Screening form in any way;
(e) Complete all information on the Newborn Screening form. If the infant is being adopted, the following may be omitted: infant's last name, birth mother's name, address, and telephone number. Infant must have an identifying name, and a contact person must be listed;
(f) Apply sufficient blood to the filter paper;
(g) Not contaminate the filter paper with any foreign substance;
(h) Not tear, perforate, scratch, or wrinkle the filter paper;
(i) Apply blood evenly to one side of the filter paper and be sure it soaks through to the other side;
(j) Apply blood to the filter paper in a manner that does not cause caking;
(k) Collect the blood in such a way as to not cause serum or tissue fluids to separate from the blood;
(l) Dry the specimen properly;
(m) Not remove the filter paper from the Newborn Screening form.
(2) Submit the completed Newborn Screening form to the Utah Department of Health, Newborn Screening Laboratory, 4431 South 2700 West, Taylorsville, Utah 84119.
(a) The Newborn Screening form shall be placed in an envelope large enough to accommodate it without folding the form.
(b) If mailed, the Newborn Screening form shall be placed in the U.S. Postal system within 24 hours of the time the appropriate specimen was collected.
(c) If hand-delivered, the Newborn Screening form shall be delivered within 48 hours of the time the appropriate specimen was collected.
(1)(a) If the Department finds an abnormal result consistent with a disease state, the Department shall send written notice to the medical home/practitioner noted on the Newborn Screening form.
(b) If the Department finds an indeterminate result on the first screening, the Department shall determine whether to send a notice to the medical home/practitioner based on the results on the second screening specimen.
(2) The Department may require the medical home/practitioner to collect and submit additional specimens for screening or confirmatory testing. The Department shall pay for the initial confirmatory testing on the newborn requested by the Department. The Department may recommend additional diagnostic testing to the medical home/practitioner. The cost of additional testing recommended by the Department is not covered by the Department.
(3) The medical home/practitioner shall collect and submit specimens within the time frame and in the manner instructed by the Department.
(4) As instructed by the Department or the medical home/practitioner, the parent or legal guardian of a newborn identified with an abnormal test result shall promptly take the newborn to the Department or medical home/practitioner to have an appropriate specimen collected.
(5) The medical home/practitioner who makes the final diagnosis shall complete a diagnostic form and return it to the Department within 30 days of the notification letter from the Department.
If the Department finds an inadequate or unsatisfactory specimen, or QNS specimen, the Department shall inform the institution or medical home/practitioner noted on the Newborn Screening form.
(1) The institution or medical home/practitioner that submitted the inadequate or unsatisfactory, or QNS specimen shall submit an appropriate specimen in accordance with Section R438-15-9. The responsible institution or medical home/practitioner shall collect and submit the new specimen within two days of notice, and the responsible institution or medical home/practitioner shall label the form for testing as directed by the Department.
(2) The parent or legal guardian of a newborn identified with an inadequate or unsatisfactory specimen or QNS specimen shall promptly take the newborn to the institution or medical home/practitioner to have an appropriate specimen collected.
A parent or legal guardian may refuse to allow the required testing for religious reasons only. The medical home/practitioner or institution shall file in the newborn's record documentation of refusal, reason, education of family about the disorders, and a signed waiver by both parents or legal guardian. The practitioner or institution shall submit a copy of the refusal to the Utah Department of Health, Newborn Screening Program, P.O. Box 144710, Salt Lake City, UT 84114-4710.
(1) The Department shall have access to the medical records of a newborn in order to identify medical home/practitioner, reason appropriate specimen was not collected, or to collect missing demographic information.
(2) The institution shall enter the Newborn Screening form number, also known as the Birth Record Number, into the Vital Records database and the Newborn Hearing Screening database.
If the medical home/practitioner or institution has information that leads it to believe that the parent or legal guardian is not complying with this rule, the medical home/practitioner or institution shall report such noncompliance as medical neglect to the Department.
(1) The Department initially releases test results to the institution of birth for first specimens and to the medical home/practitioner, as noted on the Newborn Screening form, for the second specimen.
(2) The Department notifies the medical home/practitioner noted on the Newborn Screening form as provided in Section R438-15-10(1) of any results that require follow up.
(3) The Department releases information to a medical home/practitioner or other health practitioner on a need to know basis. Release may be orally, by a hard copy of results or available electronically by authorized access.
(4) Upon request of the parent or guardian, the Department may release results as directed in the release.
(5) All requests for test results or records are governed by Utah Code Title 26, Chapter 3.
(6) The Department may release information in summary, statistical, or other forms that do not identify particular individuals.
(7) A testing laboratory that analyzes newborn screening samples for the Department may not release information or samples without the Department's express written direction.
(1) Blood spots become the property of the Department.
(2) The Department includes in parent education materials information about the Department's policy on the retention and use of residual newborn blood spots.
(3) The Department may use residual blood spots for newborn screening quality assessment activities.
(4) The Department may release blood spots for research upon the following:
(a) The person proposing to conduct the research applies in writing to the Department for approval to perform the research. The application shall include a written protocol for the proposed research, the person's professional qualifications to perform the proposed research, and other information if needed and requested by the Department. When appropriate, the proposal will then be submitted to the Department's Internal Review Board for approval.
(b) The Department shall de-identify blood spots it releases unless it obtains informed consent of a parent or guardian to release identifiable samples.
(c) All research must be first approved by the Department's Internal Review Board.
(1) The Department retains blood spots for a minimum of 90 days.
(2) Prior to disposal, the Department shall de-identify and autoclave the blood spots.
If a diagnosis is made for one of the disorders screened by the Department that was not identified by the Department, the medical home/practitioner shall report it to the Department.
As required by Subsection 63G-3-201(5): Any medical home/practitioner or institution responsible for submission of a newborn screen that violates any provision of this rule may be assessed a civil money penalty as provided in Section 26-23-6.
health care, newborn screening
January 1, 2018
26-1-6; 26-1-30; 26-10-6
For questions regarding the content or application of rules under Title R438, please contact the promulgating agency (Disease Control and Prevention). A list of agencies with links to their homepages is available at http://www.utah.gov/government/agencylist.html or from http://www.rules.utah.gov/contact/agencycontacts.htm.