Utah Administrative Code

The Utah Administrative Code is the body of all effective administrative rules as compiled and organized by the Office of Administrative Rules (see Subsection 63G-3-102(5); see also Sections 63G-3-701 and 702).

NOTE: For a list of rules that have been made effective since October 1, 2017, please see the codification segue page.

NOTE TO RULEFILING AGENCIES: Use the RTF version for submitting rule changes.


R614. Labor Commission, Occupational Safety and Health.

Rule R614-4. Hazardous Materials.

As in effect on October 1, 2017

Table of Contents

R614-4-1. Flammable Solids.

A. No source of ignition shall be permitted in locations where a hazard of dust explosion might exist until all dust producing operations have been stopped, airborne dust allowed to settle, and accumulated dusts and closed dust containers removed to an extent which will remove the hazard of dust explosion. A well administered flame permit system shall be established requiring inspection and approval by a responsible person prior to allowing spark or flame producing devices into such areas.

B. Adequate separators shall be provided to prevent iron, rocks or other sparking materials from entering, grinding, shredding, pulverizing or mixing where a hazard of dust explosion exists.

C. Machines and equipment in which the hazard of a dust explosion exists shall be so located, constructed, enclosed or vented that the force of an explosion in the machine or equipment may be dissipated without endangering employees in the regular performance of their duties.

D. Dust collectors for combustible dusts which present an explosion hazard shall be located outdoors or in detached rooms of fire resistant construction and shall be provided with adequate explosion vents, except that liquid spray type collectors may be located within buildings. Care must be exercised in the selection of liquid dust collectors.

E. Ignition by static sparks is an extreme hazard in the processing of metal powders. In addition to electrically grounding and crossbonding of all equipment, floor surfaces shall be electrically conductive and employees shall be equipped with conductive footwear. Floors shall not exceed 250,000 ohms resistance to ground. Maintaining a relative humidity between 55 and 60 percent aids in eliminating static buildup; however, relative humidity level is not a positive means of eliminating static electricity hazards. A high relative humidity shall not be used in rooms used to store, handle or process materials which are affected by moisture such as metal dusts.

F. Extreme care shall be exercised in the processing and storage of metal powders such as aluminum and magnesium to prevent water contact with the materials. Moisture reacts with powdered metals and generates hydrogen gas which is highly explosive. Materials shall be stored in tightly sealed containers and shall be brought to ambient temperatures prior to opening to prevent condensation inside the container.

G. Provisions not covered by this section shall be carried out according to the National Fire Code, Volume 3, 1992, Combustible Solids and dust Explosions, or the latest addenda or revision of that code. National fire prevention codes are also distributed as ANSI Z-12.

R614-4-2. Definitions.

A. General Definitions

1. "Act" means the Utah Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1973.

2. "Administration" means the Division of Occupational Safety and Health of the Labor Commission, also known as UOSH (Utah Occupational Safety and Health).

3. "Administrator" means the director of the Division of Occupational Safety and Health.

4. "Commission" means the Labor Commission.

5. "Employee" includes any person suffered or permitted to work by an employer.

6. "Employer" means:

a. The state;

b. Each county, city, town, and school district in the state; and

c. Every person, firm, and private corporation, including public utilities, having one or more workers or operatives regularly employed in the same business, or in or about the same establishment, under any contract of hire.

B. Explosives Definitions

1. "American Table of Distances" also known as Quantity Distance Tables - means American Table of Distances for Storage of Explosives as revised and approved by the Institute of the Makers of Explosives, November 5, 1971.

2. "Ammonium nitrate" - A chemical compound represented by the formula NH4NO3.

3. "Ammunition" - All components and any explosives case or contrivance prepared to form a charge, complete round, or cartridge for cannon, howitzer, mortar, or small arms, or for any other weapon, torpedo warhead, mine, depth charge, demolition charge, fuse, detonator, projectile, grenade, guided missile, rocket, pyrotechnics; and all chemical agents, fillers and associated hazardous materials.

4. "Ammunition and explosive materials operating area" - A restricted area specifically designed and set aside from other positions of an installation for the manufacturing, processing, storing and otherwise handling of ammunition or explosive materials.

5. "Approved" or "approval" - Means sanctioned, endorsed, accredited, certified, or accepted as satisfactory by a duly constituted and nationally recognized authority or agency.

6. "Authorized person" - Means a person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duties or to be at a specific location or locations at the job site.

7. "Barricaded" - An intervening approved barrier, natural or artificial, of such type, size and construction as to limit the effect of an explosion on nearby buildings or exposures.

8. "Blasting agent" - Any material or mixture, consisting of fuel and oxidizer, intended for blasting, not otherwise defined as an explosive. Provided, that the finished product as mixed for use or shipment, cannot be detonated by means of a number 8 test blasting cap when unconfined.

9. "Blast area" - The area of a blast, including the area immediately adjacent, within the influence of flying rock missiles.

10. "Blaster" - The person or persons authorized to use explosives for blasting purposes and meeting the qualifications contained in Part 109.22.2.

11. "Blasting cap" - A metallic tube closed at one end, containing a charge of one or more detonating compounds, and designed for and capable of detonation from the sparks or flame from a safety fuse inserted and crimped into the open end.

12. "Bulk mix delivery equipment" - Equipment (Usually a motor vehicle with or without mechanical delivery device) that transports materials in bulk form for mixing, or loading directly into blast holes, or both.

13. "Bus wire" - An expendable wire, used in parallel or series in parallel circuits, to which are connected the leg wires of electric blasting caps.

14. "Compatibility" - The ability of explosives, explosive materials, ingredients or compositions to remain unaffected when in contact with other materials or containers.

15. "Connecting wire" - An insulated expendable wire used between electric blasting caps and the leading wires or between the bus wire and the leading wires.

16. "Deflagration" - A very rapid combustion, sometimes accompanied by flame, sparks, or spattering of burning particles. Although classed as an explosion a deflagration generally implies the burning of a substance with self-contained oxygen so that the reaction zone advances into the unreacted material at less than the velocity of sound.

17. "Delay mechanism" - A mechanism designed to initiate detonation at a predetermined period of time after energy is applied to the ignition system.

18. "Detonate or detonation" - To be changed by exothermic chemical reaction usually from a solid or liquid to a gas with such rapidity that the rate of advance of the reaction zone into the unreacted material exceeds the velocity of sound in the unreacted material; that is, the advancing reaction zone is preceded by a shock wave.

19. "Detonating cord" - A flexible cord containing a center core of high explosive and used to initiate other explosives.

20. "Detonator" - Any device containing a detonating charge that is used for initiating detonation in an explosive; the term includes, but is not limited to, electric blasting caps of instantaneous and delay types, and the non-electric instantaneous and delay blasting caps.

21. "Electric blasting cap" - A blasting cap designed for and capable of detonation by means of an electric current.

22. "Emulsion explosive" - An explosive material containing substantial amounts of oxidizers dissolved in water droplets surrounded by an immiscible fuel: May be classified as Explosives Class A, Explosives Class B, or blasting agents.

23. "Explosive" - The term explosive includes any chemical compound or mechanical mixture which, when subjected to heat, impact, friction, detonation or other suitable initiation, undergoes a very rapid chemical change with the evolution of large volumes of highly heated gases which exert pressures in the surrounding medium. The term applies to materials that either detonate or deflagrate.

24. "Class A Explosives" - Explosives which possess detonating or otherwise maximum hazard; such as, but not limited to, dynamite, nitroglycerin, lead azide, blasting caps and detonating primers.

25. "Class B Explosives" - Explosives which possess flammable hazard; such as, but not limited to, propellant explosives, photographic flash powders, and some special fireworks.

26. "Class C Explosives" - Explosives which contain Class A or Class B explosives, or both, as components but in restricted quantities.

27. "Explosive Materials" - These include explosives, blasting agents and detonators. This term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite and other high explosives, slurrys, emulsions, water gels, blasting agents, black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, igniters, pyrotechnics, pyrotechnic compositions, fireworks (special and common), ammunition, propellent and propellent compositions.

28. "Fireworks" - A common synonym for Pyrotechnics (special and common).

Special Fireworks - are Class B explosives as defined by the U.S. Department of Transportation.

Common Fireworks - are Class C explosives as defined by the U.S. Department of Transportation.

29. "Fuse Lighters" - Special devices for the purpose of igniting safety fuse.

30. "Hazard" - A source of danger; exposure or liability to injury or harm.

31. "Inert" - Containing no explosives, active chemicals or pyrotechnics.

32. "Leading Wire" - An insulated wire used between the electric power source and the electric blasting cap circuit.

33. "Magazine" - Any building or structure or container other than an explosives manufacturing building approved for the storage of explosive materials.

34. "Mass Detonation" - Mass Explode - The virtually instantaneous explosion of a mass of explosives when only a small portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion or impact, the impulse of an initiating agent, or to the effect of a considerable discharge of energy from without.

35. "Misfire" - An explosive charge which failed to detonate.

36. "Motor Vehicle" - Any self-propelled vehicle.

37. "Oxidizer" or "Oxidizing Material" - A substance, such as a nitrate, that readily yields oxygen or other oxidizing substance to stimulate the combustion of organic matter or other fuel.

38. "Plant" - The land, buildings, and machinery used in carrying on a trade or business.

39. "Primer" - A cartridge or container of explosives into which a detonator is inserted or attached.

40. "Propellant" - An explosive material whose rate of combustion is low enough, and its other properties suitable, to permit its use as a propelling charge. A propellant may be either solid or liquid. A single base propellant composition consists primarily of matrix of nitrocellulose. A double base propellant composition contains nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. A composite propellant composition contains an oxidizing agent in a matrix of binder.

41. "Pyrotechnics or Pyrotechnic Compositions" - A mixture of materials consisting essentially of an oxidizing agent (oxident) and a reducing agent (fuel), that is capable of producing an explosive self sustaining reaction when heated to its ignition temperature; such as, but not limited to, devices used to produce sound, colored lights or smokes for signaling, a bright light for illumination, and time delays.

42. "Qualified" - Means one who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated his ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work or the project.

43. "Restricted Area" - Any area, from which personnel, aircraft, or vehicles, other than required for operations, are excluded for reasons of safety and security.

44. "Safety Fuse" - A flexible cord containing an internal burning medium by which fire or flame is conveyed at a continuous and uniform rate from the point of ignition to the point of use, usually a detonator.

45. "Semiconductive Hose" - A hose with an electrical resistance high enough to limit flow of stray electric currents to safe levels, yet not so high as to prevent drainage of static electric charges to ground. Hose of not more than 2 megohms resistance over this entire length and of not less than 5,000 ohms per foot meets the requirement.

46. "Sensitivity" - A physical characteristic of an explosive material, classifying its ability to react to externally applied energy or changes in environment.

47. "Shield" - A safeguard securely braced and of a strength proven sufficient to withstand the effects of the maximum credible incident involving the item being handled.

48. "Slurry" - An explosive material containing substantial portions of a liquid, oxidizers, and fuel, plus a thickener. Slurrys may be classified as Explosives Class A, Explosives Class B, or Blasting Agents.

49. "Small Arms Ammunition" - Any shotgun, rifle, pistol, or revolver cartridge, and cartridges for propellant-actuated power devices and industrial guns.

50. "Small Arms Ammunition Primers" - Are small percussion-sensitive explosive charges, encased in a cup, used to ignite propellant powder.

51. "Smokeless Propellants" - Solid propellants, commonly called smokeless powders in the trade, used in small arms ammunition, cannon, rockets, propellant-actuated power devices, etc.

52. "Stability" - The ability of an explosive material to retain chemical and physical properties when exposed to specific environmental conditions over a particular period of time.

53. "Stemming" - A suitable inert or incombustible device used to confine or separate explosives in a drill hole, or to cover explosives in mudcapping.

54. "Substantial Dividing Wall" - A structure designed to resist the effects of accidental explosions or to prevent propagation of detonation by blast or fragments.

55. "Water Gels" - An explosive material containing substantial portions of water, oxidizers, and fuel, plus a cross-linking agent. Water gels may be classified as Explosives Class A, Explosives Class B, or Blasting Agents.

R614-4-3. Explosive Materials, Purpose Scope and Responsibility.

A. Purpose: To set forth safe practices and standards for work performed in the manufacture and use of explosives, explosive material, ammunition, pyrotechnics, and related materials.

B. Scope and Application: These standards shall apply to the manufacture, testing, research, storage and use of explosives, explosive material, ammunition, pyrotechnics, fireworks (special and common), propellants, propellent compositions and related materials within the boundaries of the State of Utah. These standards shall apply to employers who employ one or more employees. These standards shall not apply to the laboratories of schools and colleges when confined to educational purposes or to explosive materials in the forms prescribed by the official United States Pharmacopeia or the National Formulary and used in medicines and medicinal agents.

C. Responsibility: Prior to starting new operations, it shall be the responsibility of every manufacturer within the scope of this standard to notify in writing the Administrator of the Utah Occupational Safety and Health Division of the Labor Commission.

R614-4-4. Explosive Materials, General Requirements.

A. Any new or existing operation shall have written operating rules and practices developed and approved by management as being in accordance with this part. The operating rules and practices shall include but are not limited to such items as:

1. Safety requirements,

2. Personal protective clothing and equipment,

3. Personnel and explosive material limits,

4. Equipment designation, inspection and maintenance,

5. Location and sequence of operations,

6. Housekeeping procedures,

7. Mixing procedures,

8. Destruction or disposal of explosive material,

9. Test on product and ingredients for compatibility and sensitivity before production.

B. No deviations from the operating rules and practices shall be permitted without written management approval.

C. An emergency action plan shall be in writing and shall cover those designated actions employers and employees must take to ensure employee safety in emergencies (i.e., fire, explosion, and adverse weather conditions). The following elements, at a minimum, shall be included in the plan:

1. Emergency evacuation procedures and emergency escape route assignments;

2. Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to operate critical operations or fight fires before they evacuate;

3. Procedures to account for all employees after emergency evacuation has been completed;

4. Rescue and medical duties for all employees after emergency evacuation has been completed;

5. The preferred means of reporting explosions, fires, and other emergencies;

6. Where fire departments or other agencies are depended on for emergency assistance, prior notice shall be given of potential hazards, and

7. Names or regular job titles of persons or departments to be contacted for further information or explanation of duties under the plan.

D. Employees shall be trained regarding pertinent requirements of R614-4-4.A.,B., and C.

E. Applicable portions of the operating rules and practices shall be convenient to all employees involved in the operation. Supervisory personnel shall maintain copies of the overall operating procedure and be responsible for the enforcement of its provisions.

F. Buildings on explosives materials plant sites shall be separated by minimum distances conforming to the requirements of the "Intra Plant Distance Table for Use only Within Confines of Explosives Manufacturing Plants" which Table is contained in "The American Table of Distances", 1991 edition as published by the Institute of Makers of Explosives, and incorporated herein by this reference in this rule; except those buildings or sites that meet the specific requirements of other organizations such as the Department of Defense.

G. Mixing facilities for blasting agents shall be separated from storage facilities and each other in accordance with the "Table of Separation Distances of Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents from Explosives or Blasting Agents" which Table is contained in "The American Table of Distances", 1991 edition as published by the Institute of Makers of Explosives, and incorporated herein by this reference in this rule.

H. All explosive material operations shall be scrutinized to devise methods for reducing the number of employees exposed, or the quantity of material subject to a single incident. Where necessary to protect employees, appropriate shields, substantial dividing walls or barricades shall be provided to shield employees from hazards; where this is not practicable, work by remote control shall be utilized.

I. An explosive material shall not be put in production unless safe working limits have been determined and posted. Operations shall be shut down whenever limits are exceeded.

J. Appropriate visual inspections shall be made of mixing, conveying, packaging, or other equipment to establish that such equipment is in safe operating condition. All problems relating to the safety of employees shall be corrected.

K. Floors and work surfaces in hazardous locations shall be constructed to facilitate cleaning and shall have no cracks or crevices in which explosive material may lodge.

L. Buildings shall be cleaned to prevent accumulations of explosive materials. Combustible or explosive waste shall be removed from buildings as often as necessary.

M. Explosive material spills shall be cleaned up immediately. An appropriate cleaning and collection system for hazardous residues shall be provided and used.

N. Waste explosives and materials contaminated with explosives shall be kept separate from all other waste.

O. Care shall be exercised so that foreign objects or materials do not get into explosive materials.

P. Appropriate tools and equipment shall be used in explosive materials operations.

Q. Only properly identified and inspected explosives materials shall be mixed.

R. Finished explosive materials shall be identified.

S. No person shall store, handle or transport explosives or materials when such storage handling, and transportation of explosives or material constitutes an undue hazard to life.

T. Explosive material areas shall be placarded at each entrance. Personnel entering these areas shall present the proper credentials and turn over all articles prohibited by management before entering the area. Plant boundaries shall be fenced unless topography and/or other physical considerations accomplish this; the boundaries of restricted areas shall be posted at intervals to warn against trespassing.

U. Parking of vehicles in restricted areas near explosives facilities shall be controlled to minimize fire and explosion hazards and prevent congestion in event of emergency. Vehicles shall be parked in designated areas only.

R614-4-5. Building Construction.

A. Buildings used for explosive materials shall be of a safe design for the materials being handled and shall be maintained in that condition.

B. Heating equipment shall be installed in a manner to prevent ignition, deflagration or explosion of the materials being handled.

C. Buildings where dust, fumes, or vapors are possible shall be adequately ventilated, at the source of the hazard. Exhaust fans through which combustible dust or flammable vapors pass shall be equipped with nonsparking blades (or casing lined with nonsparking material) and approved motors. The entire ventilating system shall be bonded electrically and grounded properly.

D. Cleaning and collection systems shall be installed and maintained in a manner that takes into consideration the materials being handled.

R614-4-6. Electrical.

A. All electrical switches, controls, motors, wiring and equipment located in explosive material plants shall conform to the requirements of 29 CFR 1910 Chapter S (Electrical).

B. In any operations where a continuous supply of power is required, the lack of which may cause a hazard to employees an alternate source of power shall be provided.

C. The primary electrical supply to an explosives area shall be so arranged that it can be cut off by switches located at one or more central points away from the area.

D. When static electricity is a hazard nonsparking conductive floors and work surfaces or other approved methods to control and disperse static electricity is required, continuity of grounding on all mechanical devices shall be assured.

E. Only artificial lighting devices approved for the location shall be permitted in explosive areas.

R614-4-7. Fire, and/or Explosion Prevention.

A. No person shall take matches, lighters or other fire, flame, heat or spark producing devices into any restricted area containing ammunition, explosive material or readily ignitable flammable materials except by written authorization. When such authority has been received, a carrying device, too large to fit into the pockets, shall be used for matches, lighters, and similar materials. The carrying of and the use of "strike anywhere" matches are prohibited.

B. An employee whose clothing is contaminated with explosive or flammable material to the degree that it may endanger the safety of the employee shall not smoke, go near fire, open flame or spark producing devices.

C. Smoking is prohibited except in designated smoking areas.

D. The land within 25 feet of any explosive material manufacturing or mixing building shall be kept clear of rubbish, brush, dried grass, leaves, dead trees, all live trees less than 10 feet high, and other combustible materials.

R614-4-8. Protective Clothing and Equipment.

A. Management shall assure that appropriate protective clothing, eye and face protection equipment, and respiratory protection equipment, where necessary to protect the safety and health of employees, shall be used and employees trained in their use.

B. When required by exposure, a shower bath shall be taken at the end of each shift.

C. Shoes shall be cleaned before entering or leaving explosive materials buildings.

D. Contaminated work clothing and shoes shall not be worn off the plant site.

E. Employees who work upon conductive flooring, conductive mats, or conductive runners where explosive materials or flammable vapors are present must wear non-sparking conductive footwear and the conductivity shall be assured. Personnel from other departments or visitors who enter these areas shall also comply (See ANSI/UL 467-1972 Grounds and Grounding and ANSI Z41.3-1976 Conductive Safety-Toe Footwear).

F. Under no circumstances will personnel working on electrical equipment or facilities wear conductive-soled safety shoes or other conductive footwear.

G. Operational safety showers and eye wash facilities, clearly identified, shall be provided in case of contact with corrosives. All personnel employed in corrosive areas shall know the location of safety showers and eye wash facilities and be trained in their use.

R614-4-9. Intra Plant Transportation.

A. When moving explosive materials, the material shall be in acceptable containers, and covered when necessary.

B. Only authorized employees shall operate motorized equipment.

C. Vehicles used for the transportation of explosives shall be of a design to safely handle the material being moved.

R614-4-10. Explosive Materials Ingredient Preparation Operations.

A. When explosive material ingredients are susceptible to ignition by static electricity, shock, friction, spontaneous combustion, or incompatibility, adequate precaution shall be taken.

B. Blending or mixing equipment shall be of a construction suitable for the hazards of the materials being handled or processed.

C. Drive equipment for explosive material blenders, mixers, presses (hydraulic), screeners (mechanical), and other equipment shall be so designed that drive motors and pumps are located outside of the operating room in a dust-free and vapor-free atmosphere.

D. When materials are dried, the safe temperature for drying shall be established and then not exceeded at any point in the dryer apparatus or drying operation.

E. Containers used for handling oxidizers such as sodium nitrate and ammonium nitrate shall be examined for foreign material before use.

F. When necessary, screening of raw materials shall be supplemented by a permanent type magnetic separator.

G. Sulfur shall be handled so as to avoid friction and static electricity ignition.

H. Nitrocotton shall not be subjected to rough handling.

I. Extreme cleanliness shall be maintained in all nitrocotton operations. Any material that has escaped from its container shall be wet down immediately with water for proper disposal. Waste or dirty nitrocotton shall be properly disposed of.

J. Hoops and nuts on nitrocotton barrels or containers shall be wet with water or oil prior to removing them and prior to placing them back on the containers.

K. Nitrocotton shall be stored in closed containers.

L. Frozen nitrocotton shall be thawed before removing from drums.

M. Nitrocotton shall be screened before use; screens shall be of non-sparking material and grounded.

N. Nitrocotton containing less than 25% moisture shall not be screened.

O. Partially filled drums of nitrocotton or similar materials shall be closed to prevent evaporation of moisture.

P. Empty drums shall be thoroughly cleaned of nitrocotton, inside and out.

R614-4-11. Maintenance and Repairs.

A. Repairs to explosive material, machinery or buildings shall not be made without prescribed cleanup, decontamination and approval by authorized supervisory personnel.

B. All new or newly repaired process equipment used in explosive material operations shall be examined and test operated before being placed into routine operation.

C. All tools used for lubrication, repairs or adjustment of explosive material equipment shall be removed from the building or returned to their proper location before routine operations are started or resumed.

D. Refueling shall comply with 29 CFR 1910.106.

R614-4-12. Storage of Explosive Material.

A. Explosives and related materials shall be stored in approved facilities required under the applicable provisions of 27 CFR 55 Commerce in Explosives, and/or the applicable provisions of the U.S. Department of Defense Regulations.

B. All explosive materials shall be stored in an approved magazine or area unless they are in process, being used or being loaded or unloaded into or from transportation vehicles or while in the course of transportation.

R614-4-13. Transportation of Explosive Material.

Transportation of explosives shall meet all the provisions of the U.S. Department of Transportation and/or Utah Department of Transportation.

R614-4-14. Blasting Agents.

A. General. Unless otherwise set forth in this rule, blasting agents, excluding slurry, water gels, and emulsions, shall be manufactured, transported, stored, and used in accordance with these regulations. Slurry, water gels, and emulsion are covered in R614-4.

B. Fixed Location Mixing.

1. Buildings or other facilities used for the mixing of blasting agents shall conform to the following minimum requirements.

2. Buildings shall be of noncombustible construction or sheet metal on wood studs.

3. Floors shall be of concrete or other non-absorbent material. They shall be constructed without enclosed floor drains and piping into which molten materials could flow and be confined in case of fire.

4. All fuel oil storage facilities, including heating oil and process oil, shall be separated from the mixing plant, and located in such a manner that in case of tank rupture the oil will drain away from the mixing plant, or diked in a manner to contain the tank contents in case of rupture.

5. The building shall be well ventilated (See R614-4-5.C.)

6. Only heating units which do not depend on combustion processes, properly designed and located, may be used in the plant. Electric heaters with exposed resistance elements are prohibited. All direct sources of heat shall be provided from units located outside the mixing building.

7. All internal-combustion engines, such as diesel or gasoline-powered generators, shall be located outside the mixing building, or shall be properly ventilated and isolated by a permanent firewall. The exhaust systems on all such engines shall be provided with spark arrester mufflers, or be remotely located, so that any spark emission will not be a hazard to any materials in or adjacent to the building.

C. Equipment used for mixing blasting agents shall conform to the requirements of this subdivision.

1. The design of the processing equipment, including mixing and conveying equipment, shall be compatible with the relative sensitivity of the materials being handled. Equipment shall be designed to minimize the possibility of frictional heating, compaction, overloading, accumulation of dust, and confinement. All bearings and drive assemblies shall be mounted outside the mixer. All surfaces shall be accessible for cleaning. All hollow shafts shall be constructed to permit venting with an opening of at least 1/2 inch diameter.

2. Both equipment and handling procedures shall be designed to prevent the introduction of foreign objects or materials.

3. Mixers, pumps, valves and related equipment shall be designed to permit regular and periodic flushing, cleaning, dismantling and inspection.

4. All electrical equipment, including wiring, switches, controls, motors and lights which is located inside the mixing room shall conform to the requirements of 29 CFR 1910 Subpart S for Class II, Division 2 locations.

5. Mixing and packaging equipment shall be constructed of materials compatible with the materials being handled.

6. Suitable means shall be provided to prevent the flow of fuel to the mixer in case of fire. In gravity flow systems, an automatic spring-loaded shut-off valve with fusible link shall be installed.

D. The provisions of this subdivision shall be considered when determining blasting agent compositions.

1. The sensitivity of the blasting agent shall be determined by means of a No. 8 test blasting cap at regular intervals and after every change in formulations.

2. Oxidizers of small particle size, such as crushed ammonium nitrate prills or fines, may be more sensitive than coarser products and shall, therefore, be handled with greater care.

3. No hydrocarbon liquid fuel with flashpoint lower than that of no. 2 diesel fuel oil 125 degrees F. minimum shall be used.

4. Crude oil and crankcase oil shall not be used.

5. Metal powders such as aluminum shall be kept dry and shall be stored on containers or bins which are moisture-resistant or weather-tight. Solid fuels shall be used in such manner as to minimize dust explosion hazards.

6. Peroxides and chlorates shall not be used.

E. Mixing Operations

1. Safety precautions at mixing plants shall include the requirements of this subdivision.

2. The mixing, loading, and ingredient transfer areas where residues or spilled materials may accumulate shall be cleaned periodically. A cleaning and collection system for dangerous residues shall be provided.

3. A daily visual inspection shall be made of the mixing, conveying and electrical equipment to determine that such equipment is in safe operating condition. All discrepancies shall be corrected prior to operation. A program of systematic maintenance shall be conducted on a regular schedule.

4. The entire mixing and packaging plant shall be cleaned regularly and thoroughly to prevent excessive accumulation of dust, grease, and product ingredients.

5. Empty ingredient bags shall be disposed of daily in a safe manner.

6. No welding shall be permitted nor open flames allowed in or around the mixing or storage area of the plant, unless the equipment and area have been completely washed down and all fuels and oxidizing material removed.

7. Before welding or making repairs to hollow shafts, all fuels and oxidizing material shall be removed from the outside and inside of the shaft by a thorough washing, and the shaft shall be vented.

8. Other explosive material shall not be stored inside of or within 50 feet of any building or facility used for the mixing of blasting agents.

F. Bulk delivery and mixing vehicles.

1. The provisions of this subparagraph shall apply to off-highway private operations as well as to all public highway movements.

2. A bulk vehicle body for delivering and mixing blasting agents shall conform with the requirements of this subdivision.

a. The body shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.

b. Vehicles used to transport bulk premixing blasting agents on public highways shall have closed bodies.

c. All moving parts of the mixing system shall be designed as to prevent a heat buildup. Shafts or axles which contact the product shall have outboard bearings with 1-inch minimum clearance between the bearings and the outside of the product container. Particular attention shall be given to the clearances on all moving parts.

d. A bulk delivery vehicle shall be strong enough to carry the load without difficulty and be in safe mechanical condition.

e. When electric power is supplied by a self-contained motor generator located on the vehicle, the motor generator shall be separated from the blasting agent discharge.

f. A positive action parking brake which will set the wheel brakes on at least one axle shall be provided on vehicles when equipped with air brakes and shall be used during bulk delivery operations. Wheel chocks shall supplement parking brakes whenever conditions may require.

3. Operation of bulk delivery vehicles shall conform to the requirements of this subdivision. These include the placarding requirements as specified by the Department of Transportation.

a. The operator shall be trained in the safe operation of the vehicle together with its mixing, conveying, and related equipment. The employer shall assure that the operator is familiar with the commodities being delivered and the general procedure for handling emergency situations.

b. The operator shall be familiar with applicable local, state, and federal laws and regulations governing the transportation of explosive materials to the location and on the site.

c. No person shall smoke, carry matches or any flame producing device, or carry any fire-arms while in or about bulk vehicles effecting the mixing, transfer, or down-the-hole loading of blasting agents at or near the blasting site.

d. Caution shall be exercised in the movement of the vehicle in the blasting area to avoid driving the vehicle over or dragging hoses over firing lines, cap wires, or explosive materials. The employer shall assure that the driver, in moving the vehicle, has assistance of a second person to guide his movements.

e. No in transit mixing of materials shall be performed.

4. Pneumatic loading from bulk delivery vehicles into blast holes primed with electric blasting caps or other static-sensitive systems shall conform to the requirements of the subdivision.

a. A positive grounding device shall be used to prevent the accumulation of static electricity.

b. A discharge hose shall be used that has a resistance range that will prevent conducting stray currents, but that is conductive enough to bleed off static buildup.

c. A qualified person shall evaluate all systems to determine if they will adequately dissipate static under potential field conditions.

5. Repairs to bulk delivery vehicles shall conform to the requirements of this Part.

a. No welding or open flames shall be used on or around any part of the delivery equipment unless it has been completely washed down and all oxidizer material removed.

b. Before welding or making repairs to hollow shafts, the shaft shall be thoroughly cleaned inside and out and vented with a minimum one-half inch diameter opening.

G. Bulk Storage Bins

1. The bin, including supports, shall be constructed of compatible materials, waterproof, and adequately supported and braced to withstand the combination of all loads including impact forces arising from product movement within the bin and accidental vehicle contact with the support legs.

2. The bin discharge gate shall be designed to provide a closure tight enough to prevent leakage of the stored product. Provision shall also be made so that the gate can be locked.

3. Bin loading manways or access hatches shall be hinged or otherwise attached to the bin and designed to permit locking.

4. Any electrically driven conveyors for loading or unloading bins shall conform to the requirements of 29 CFR 1910 Subpart S. They shall be designed to minimize damage from corrosion.

5. Bins containing blasting agent shall be located, with respect to inhabited buildings, passenger railroads, and public highways, in accordance with American Table of Distances and separation from other blasting agent storage and explosives storage shall be in conformity with NFPA 492.

6. Bins containing ammonium nitrate shall be separate from blasting agent storage and explosives storage in conformity with NFPA 492.

H. Storage of Blasting Agents shall conform with the requirements of R614-4-12.

I. Transportation of Blasting Agents shall conform with the requirements of R614-4-13.

R614-4-15. Slurry, Water Gel and Emulsions.

A. General Provisions. Unless otherwise set forth in this rule, slurry, water gels, and emulsions shall be manufactured, transported, stored and used in the same manner as explosives or blasting agents in accordance with these regulations.

B. Types and classification.

1. Slurry, water gels, and emulsions which are cap-sensitive as defined in R614-4-2.B. under Blasting Agent shall be classified as an explosive and manufactured, transported, stored, and used as specified for "explosives" in this rule.

2. Slurry, water gels, and emulsions which are not cap-sensitive as defined in R614-4-2.B.of this section under Blasting Agent shall be classified as blasting agents and manufactured, transported, stored, and used as specified for "blasting agents" in this rule.

3. When tests on specific formulations of slurry, water gels, and emulsions result in Department of Transportation classification as a Class B explosive, bullet-resistant magazines are not required. See R614-4-12.

C. Fixed Location Mixing

1. Buildings or other facilities used for the mixing of slurrys, water gels and emulsions shall conform to the following minimum requirements.

2. Buildings shall be of noncombustible construction or sheet metal on wood studs.

3. Floors shall be of concrete or other non-absorbent material. They shall be constructed without enclosed floor drains and piping into which molten materials could flow and be confined in case of fire.

4. All fuel oil storage facilities, including heating oil and process oil, shall be separated from the mixing plant, and located in such a manner that in case of tank rupture the oil will drain away from the mixing plant, or diked in a manner to contain the tank contents in case of rupture.

5. The building shall be well ventilated.

6. Only heating units which do not depend on combustion processes, properly designed and located, may be used in the plant. Electric heaters with exposed resistance elements are prohibited. All direct sources of heat shall be provided from units located outside the mixing building.

7. Internal-combustion engines, such as diesel or gasoline-powered generators, when the hazard exists, shall be located outside the mixing building or shall be properly ventilated and isolated by a permanent firewall. The exhaust systems on all such engines shall be provided with spark-arrester mufflers, or be remotely located, so that any spark emission will not be a hazard to any materials in or adjacent to the building.

D. Ingredients of Slurry, Water Gels and Emulsions.

1. Ingredients of slurrys, water gels, and emulsions shall conform to the requirements of this subdivision.

2. Ingredients in themselves classified as Class A or Class B Explosives shall be stored in conformity with R614-4-15 of this rule.

3. Nitrate-water solutions may be stored in tank cars, tank trucks, or fixed tanks without quantity or distance limitations. Spills or leaks which may contaminate combustible materials shall be cleaned up immediately.

4. Metal powders such as aluminum shall be kept dry and shall be stored in containers or bins which are moisture-resistant or weathertight. Solid fuels shall be used in such manner as to minimize dust explosion hazards.

5. Ingredients shall not be stored with incompatible materials.

6. Peroxides and chlorates shall not be used.

E. Mixing Equipment

1. Mixing equipment shall comply with the requirements of this subdivision.

2. The design of the processing equipment, including mixing and conveying equipment, shall be compatible with the relative sensitivity of the materials being handled. Equipment shall be designed to minimize the possibility of frictional heating, compaction, overloading, and confinement.

3. Both equipment and handling procedures shall be designed to prevent the introduction of foreign objects or materials.

4. Mixers, pumps, valves and related equipment shall be designed to permit regular and periodic flushing, cleaning, dismantling, and inspection.

5. All electrical equipment including wiring, switches, controls, motors and lights, shall conform to the requirements of 29 CFR 1910 Subpart S.

F. Bulk delivery and mixing vehicles

1. The provisions of this subparagraph shall apply to off-highway private operations as well as to all public highway movements.

2. The design of vehicles shall comply with the requirements of this subdivision.

a. Vehicles used over public highways for the bulk transportation of water gels or of ingredients classified as dangerous commodities, shall meet the requirements of the Department of Transportation and shall meet the requirements of this Part.

b. When electric power is supplied by a self-contained motor generator located on the vehicle the generator shall be at a point separated from where the water gel is discharged.

c. The design of processing equipment and general requirements shall conform to the requirements of this Chapter.

d. A bulk delivery vehicle shall be strong enough to carry the load without difficulty and be in good mechanical condition.

e. A positive action parking brake which will set the wheel brakes on at least one axle shall be provided on vehicles when equipped with air brakes and shall be used during bulk delivery operations. Wheel chocks shall supplement parking brakes whenever conditions may require.

G. Operation of bulk delivery and mixing vehicles shall comply with the requirements of this subdivision.

1. The operator shall be trained in the safe operation of the vehicle together with its mixing, conveying, and related equipment. He shall be familiar with the commodities being delivered and the general procedure for handling emergency situations.

2. The operator shall be familiar with applicable local, state and federal laws and regulations governing the transportation of explosive materials to the location and on the site.

3. No person shall be allowed to smoke, carry matches or any flame-producing devices, or carry any firearms while in or about bulk vehicles effecting the mixing, transfer, or down-the-hole loading of slurry, water gels, and emulsions, at or near the blasting site.

4. Caution shall be exercised in the movement of the vehicle in the blasting area to avoid driving the vehicle over or dragging hoses over firing lines, cap wires, or explosive materials. The employer shall assure the driver the assistance of a second person to guide the driver's movements.

5. No in transit mixing of materials shall be performed.

6. The location chosen for slurry, water gel, and emulsions or ingredient transfer from a support vehicle into the borehole loading vehicle shall be away from the blasting hole site when the boreholes are loaded or in the process of being loaded.

R614-4-16. Small Arms Ammunition, Small Arms Primers, and Small Arms Propellants.

A. Scope - This rule does not apply to in-process storage and intraplant transportation during manufacture of small arms ammunition, small arms primers and smokeless propellants.

B. Small Arms Ammunition

1. No quantity limitations are imposed on the storage of small arms ammunition in warehouses, retail stores, and other general occupancy facilities except those imposed by limitations of storage facilities.

2. Small arms ammunition shall be separated from flammable liquids, flammable solids as classified in 49 CFR 172, and from oxidizing materials, by a fire-resistive wall of 1 hour rating or by a distance of 25 feet.

3. Small arms ammunition shall not be stored together with Class A or Class B explosives unless the storage facility is adequate for this latter storage.

C. Smokeless Propellants

1. All smokeless propellants shall be stored in shipping containers specified in 27 CFR 55 Commerce in Explosives for smokeless propellants.

2. Commercial stocks of smokeless propellants over 20 pounds and not more than 100 pounds shall be stored in portable wooden boxes having wall of at least 1 inch nominal thickness.

3. Commercial stocks in quantities not to exceed 750 pounds shall be stored in nonportable storage cabinets having wooden walls of at least 1 inch nominal thickness. Not more than 400 pounds shall be permitted in any one cabinet.

4. Quantities in excess of 750 pounds shall be stored in magazines in accordance with R614-4-12.

D. Small Arms Ammunition Primers

1. Small arms ammunition primers shall not be stored except in the original shipping container in accordance with the requirements of Department of Transportation for small arms ammunition primers.

2. Small arms ammunition primers shall be separated from flammable liquids, flammable solids as classified in 49 CFR 172, and oxidizing materials by a fire-resistive wall of 1-hour rating or by a distance of 25 feet.

3. Not more than 750,000 small arms ammunition primers shall be stored in any one building, except as provided in R614-4-16.D.4. Not more than 100,000 shall be stored in any one pile. Piles shall be at least 15 feet apart.

4. Quantities of small arms ammunition primers in excess of 750,000 shall be stored in magazines in accordance with R614-4-12.

R614-4-17. Fireworks.

Scope - This rule applies to the manufacture of Class B and C fireworks.

A. All fireworks manufacturing shall comply with the requirements of this rule and the applicable portions of R614-4.

1. No more than 500 pounds of pyrotechnic and explosive composition shall be permitted at one time in any mixing building or any building in which pyrotechnic and explosive compositions are pressed or otherwise prepared for finishing and assembling.

2. No more than 500 pounds of pyrotechnic and explosive composition shall be permitted in a finishing and assembling building at one time.

3. In no case shall oxidizers such as nitrates, chlorates, or perchlorates be stored in the same building with combustible powdered materials such as charcoal, guns, metals, sulfur, or antimony sulfide.

B. Separation Distances.

1. All process buildings shall be separated from inhabited buildings, public highways and passenger railways in accordance with American Table of distance.

2. The separation distance between process buildings shall be in accordance with American Table of Distances.

3. Separation distances of nonprocess buildings from process buildings and magazines shall be in accordance with American Table of Distances.

4. Separation of magazines containing black powder or salutes classified as Class B fireworks from inhabited buildings, highways, and other magazines containing black powder or salutes classified as Class B fireworks shall be in accordance with American Table of Distances.

C. Building Construction

1. The exterior of process buildings constructed after this Code is adopted shall be constructed of materials no more combustible than painted wood.

2. No buildings shall have a basement. Interior wall surfaces and ceilings of buildings shall be smooth, free from cracks and crevices, noncombustible, and with a minimum of horizontal ledges upon which dust may accumulate. Wall joints and openings for wiring and plumbing shall be sealed to prevent entry of dust. Floors and work surfaces shall not have cracks or crevices in which explosives or pyrotechnic compositions may lodge.

3. Mixing, screening, pressing and assembly buildings or areas shall have conductive flooring, properly grounded.

R614-4-18. Use of Explosives and Blasting Agents.

A. General Provision

1. While explosives are being handled or used, smoking shall not be permitted and no one near the explosives shall possess matches,open light or other fire or flame except for ignition purposes. No person shall be allowed to handle explosives while under the influence of intoxicating liquors, narcotics, or other dangerous drugs.

2. Original containers or approved magazines shall be used for taking detonators and other explosives from storage magazines to the blasting area.

3. When blasting is done in congested areas or in close proximity to a structure, or any other installation that may be damaged, the blast shall be covered before firing with a mat constructed so that it is capable of preventing fragments from being thrown.

4. Persons authorized to prepare explosive charges or conduct blasting operations shall use every reasonable precaution including but not limited to warning signals, flags, barricades, or woven wire mats to insure the safety of all employees.

5. Surface blasting operations, except during unusual conditions shall be conducted during daylight hours.

a. Unusual blasting operations associated with industrial processes that are performed inside buildings shall be permitted, regardless of time of day, if both of the following conditions are met:

(1) All requirements concerning the use of explosives during normal blasting operations are implemented; and

(2) A minimum illumination intensity of 20 foot-candles is provided within a 5-foot (1.52m) radius of where explosive charges are being assembled, where explosive charges are being placed, and where explosive materials are being attached to initiating devices.

6. Whenever blasting is being conducted in the vicinity of gas, electric, water, fire alarm, telephone, telegraph, and steam utilities, the blaster shall notify the appropriate representatives of such utilities at least 24 hours in advance of blasting, specifying the location and intended time of such blasting. Verbal notice shall be confirmed with written notice.

7. Due precautions shall be taken to prevent accidental discharge of electric blasting caps from current induced by radar, radio transmitters, lightning, adjacent powerlines, dust storms, or other sources of extraneous electricity. These precautions shall include:

a. The suspension of all blasting operations and removal of persons from the blasting area during the approach and progress of an electric storm; and

b. The posting of signs warning against the use of mobile radio transmitters. (See ANSI C-95.4 and Institute of Makers of Explosive Safety Library Publication #20.)

8. Warning signs, indicating a blast area, shall be maintained at all approaches to the blast area. The warning sign lettering shall not be less than 4 inches in height on a contrasting background.

9. The blaster shall keep an accurate, up-to-date record of explosives, explosive materials, blasting agents, and blasting supplies used in a blast and shall keep an accurate running inventory of all explosives and blasting agents stored on the operation.

10. No activity of any nature other than that which is required for drilling or for loading holes with explosive material shall be permitted in a blast area.

11. Empty boxes and paper and fiber packing materials which have previously contained explosive material shall not be used again for any purpose, but shall be destroyed by burning at an approved isolated location out of doors, and no person shall be nearer than 100 feet after the burning has started.

12. Containers of explosives shall not be left open in any magazine or within 50 feet of any magazine. In opening kegs or wooden cases, no sparking metal tools shall be used; wooden wedges and either wood, fiber or rubber mallets shall be used. Nonsparking metallic slitters may be used for opening fiberboard cases.

13. Explosives or blasting equipment that are deteriorated or damaged shall not be used.

14. No explosives shall be abandoned.

B. Blaster Qualifications.

1. A blaster shall be able to understand and give written and oral orders.

2. A blaster shall be qualified by reason of training, knowledge, or experience, in the field of transporting, storing, handling, and use of explosives material and have a working knowledge of State and local laws and regulations which pertain to explosives material.

3. Blasters shall be required to furnish satisfactory evidence of competency in handling explosives material and performing in a safe manner the type of blasting that will be required.

4. The blaster shall be knowledgeable and competent in the use of each type of blasting method used.

C. Loading of Explosive Materials.

1. Procedures that permit safe loading shall be established and followed.

2. All drill holes shall be sufficiently large to admit freely the insertion of the cartridges of explosives.

3. Tamping shall be done only with wood rods or plastic tamping poles without exposed metal parts, but nonsparking metal connectors may be used for jointed poles. Violent tamping shall be avoided. The primer shall never be tamped.

4. When loading blasting agents over electric blasting caps, semiconductive delivery hose shall be used and the equipment shall be bonded and grounded.

5. No holes shall be loaded except those to be fired in the next round of blasting.

6. No loaded holes shall be left unattended or unprotected.

7. Drilling shall not be started until all remaining butts of old holes are examined for unexploded charges, and if any are found, they shall be refired before work proceeds.

8. No employee shall be allowed to deepen drill holes which have contained explosives.

9. After loading for a blast is completed, all excess blasting caps or electric blasting caps and other explosives shall immediately be returned to their separate storage magazines.

D. Initiation of Explosive Charges - Electric Blasting.

1. Electric blasting caps shall not be used where sources of extraneous electricity make the use of electric blasting caps dangerous. Blasting cap leg wires shall be kept short-circuited (shunted) until they are connected into the circuit for firing.

2. Before adopting any system of electrical firing, the blaster shall conduct a thorough survey for extraneous currents, and all dangerous currents shall be eliminated before any holes are loaded.

3. In any single blast using electric blasting caps, all caps shall be electrically compatible.

4. Electric blasting shall be carried out by using blasting circuits or power circuits in accordance with the electric blasting cap manufacturer's recommendations.

5. When firing a circuit of electric blasting caps, care must be exercised to ensure that an adequate quantity of delivered current is available, in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

6. Connecting wires and lead wires shall be insulated single solid wires of sufficient current-carrying capacity.

7. Buss wires shall be solid single wires of sufficient current-carrying capacity.

8. When firing electrically, the insulation on all firing lines shall be adequate in good condition.

9. A power circuit used for firing electric blasting caps shall not be grounded.

10. In underground operations when firing from a power circuit, a safety switch shall be placed in the permanent firing line at intervals. This switch shall be made so it can be locked only in the "off" position and shall be provided with a short-circuiting arrangement of the firing lines to the cap circuit.

11. In underground operations there shall be a "lightning" gap of at least 15 feet in the firing system ahead of the main firing switch; that is, between this switch and the source of power. This gap shall be bridged by a flexible jumper cord just before firing the blast.

12. When firing from a power circuit, the firing switch shall be locked in the open or "off" position at all times, except when firing. It shall be so designed that the firing lines to the cap circuit are automatically short-circuited when the switch is in the "off" position. Keys to this switch shall be entrusted only to the blaster.

13. Blasting machines shall be in good condition and the efficiency of the machine shall be tested periodically to make certain that it can deliver power at its rated capacity.

14. When firing with blasting machines, the connections shall be made as recommended by the manufacturer of the electric blasting caps used.

15. The number of electric blasting caps connected to a blasting machine shall not be in excess of its rated capacity. Furthermore, in primary blasting, a series circuit shall contain no more caps than the limits recommended by the manufacturer of the electric blasting caps in use.

16. The blaster shall be in charge of the blasting machines and no other person shall connect the leading wires to the machines.

17. Blasters, when testing initiating circuits, or electric caps, shall use only blasting galvanometers or other instruments which have been designed and approved for this purpose.

18. Whenever the possibility exists that a leading line of blasting wire might be thrown over a live powerline by the force of an explosion, care shall be taken to see that the total length of wires are kept too short to hit the lines, or that the wires are securely anchored to the ground. If neither of these requirements can be satisfied, a nonelectric system shall be used.

19. In electrical firing, only the employee making leading wire connections shall fire the shot. All connections shall be made from the bore hole back to the source of firing current, and the leading wires shall remain shorted and not be connected to the blasting machine or other source of current until the charge is to be fired.

20. After firing an electric blast from a blasting machine the leading wires shall be immediately disconnected from the machine and short-circuited.

E. Use of Safety Fuse.

1. Safety fuse shall only be used where sources of extraneous electricity make the use of electric blasting caps dangerous. The use of a fuse that has been damaged in any way shall be forbidden.

2. The hanging of a fuse on nails or other projections which will cause a sharp end to be formed in the fuse is prohibited.

3. Before capping safety fuse, a short length shall be cut from the end of the supply reel so as to assure a fresh cut end in each blasting cap.

4. Only a cap crimper of approved design shall be used for attaching blasting caps to safety fuse. Crimpers shall be kept in good repair and accessible for use.

5. No unused cap or short capped fuse shall be placed in any hole to be blasted; such detonators shall be removed from the working place and destroyed.

6. No fuse shall be capped, or primers made up, in any magazine or near any possible source of ignition.

7. No employees shall be permitted to carry detonators or store detonators or primers of any kind in their clothing.

8. The minimum length of safety fuse to be used in blasting shall not be less than 36 inches or a burning time of 120 seconds.

9. At least two employees shall be present when multiple cap and fuse blasting is done by hand lighting methods.

10. Not more than 12 fuses shall be lighted by each blaster when hand lighting devices are used. However, when two or more safety fuses in a group are lighted as one by means of igniter cord, or other similar fuse lighting devices, they may be considered as one fuse.

11. The method of dropping or pushing a primer or any explosive with a lighted fuse attached is forbidden.

12. Cap and fuse shall not be used for firing mudcap charges unless charges are separated sufficiently to prevent one charge from dislodging other shots in the blast.

13. When blasting with safety fuses, consideration shall be given to the length and burning rate of the fuse. Sufficient time, with a margin of safety, shall always be provided for the blaster to reach a place of safety.

F. Use of Detonating Cord.

1. Care shall be taken to select a detonating cord consistent with the type and physical condition of the bore hole and stemming and the type of explosives used.

2. Detonating cord shall be handled and used with the same respect and care given other explosives.

3. The line of detonating cord extending out of a bore hole or from a charge shall be cut from the supply spool before loading the remainder of the bore hole or placing additional charges.

4. Detonating cord shall be handled and used with care to avoid damaging or severing the cord during and after loading and hooking up.

5. Detonating cord connections shall be complete and positive in accordance with approved and recommended methods. Knot-type or other cord-to-cord connections shall be made only with detonating cord in which the explosive core is dry.

6. All detonating cord trunklines and branchlines shall be free of loops, sharp kinks, or angles that direct the cord back toward the oncoming line of detonation.

7. All detonating cord connections shall be inspected before firing the blast.

8. When detonating cord millisecond-delay connectors or short-interval delay electric blasting caps are used with detonating cord, the practice shall conform strictly to the manufacturer's recommendations.

9. When connecting a blasting cap or an electric blasting cap to detonating cord, the cap shall be taped or otherwise attached securely along the side or the end of the detonating cord, with the end of the cap containing the explosive charge pointed in the direction in which the detonation is to proceed.

10. Detonators for firing the trunkline shall not be brought to the loading areas nor attached to the detonating cord until everything else is in readiness for the blast.

G. Firing the Blast.

1. Before a blast is fired, a warning signal shall be given by the blaster in charge, who has made certain that all surplus explosives are in safe place and all employees, vehicles, and equipment are at a safe distance, or under sufficient cover.

2. Before firing any blast, warning shall be given, and all possible entries into the blasting area, shall be carefully guarded. The blaster shall make sure that all employees are out of the blast area before firing a blast.

H. Inspection After Blasting.

1. Immediately after the blast has been fired, the firing line shall be disconnected from the blasting machine, or where power switches are used, they shall be locked open or in the off position.

2. Sufficient time shall be allowed for the smoke and fumes to leave the blast area before returning to the shot. An inspection of the area and the surrounding rubble shall be made by the blaster to determine if all charges have been exploded before employees are allowed to return to the operation. Any unexploded explosives shall be disposed of safely.

I. Misfires.

1. If a misfire is found, the blaster shall provide proper safeguards for excluding all employees from the danger zone.

2. No other work shall be done except that necessary to remove the hazard of misfire and only those employees necessary to do the work shall remain in the danger zone.

3. No attempt shall be made to extract explosives from any charged or misfired hole; a new primer shall be put in and the hole refired. If refiring of the misfired hole presents a hazard, the explosives may be removed by washing out with water or, where the misfire is under water, blown out with air.

4. If there are any misfires while using cap and fuse, all employees shall be required to remain away from the charge for at least 1 hour. If electric blasting caps are used and a misfire occurs, this waiting period may be reduced to 30 minutes. Misfires shall be handled under the direction of the blaster in charge of the blasting and all wires shall be carefully traced and search made for unexploded charges.

5. No drilling, digging, or picking shall be permitted until all missed holes have been detonated or the authorized representative has approved the work can proceed.

J. Underwater Blasting.

1. Loading tubes and casings of dissimilar metals shall not be used because of possible electric transient currents from galvanic action of the metals and water.

2. Only water-resistant blasting caps and detonating cords shall be used for all marine blasting. Loading shall be done through a non-sparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary.

3. No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way is closer than 1,500 feet to the blasting area. Those on board vessels or craft moored or anchored within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired.

4. No blast shall be fired while any swimming or diving operations are in progress in the vicinity of the blasting area. If such operations are in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be fired while any person is in the water.

5. Blasting flags shall be displayed.

6. The storage and handling of explosives aboard vessels used in underwater blasting operations shall be according to provisions outlined herein on handling and storing explosives.

7. When more than one charge is placed under water, a float device shall be attached to an element of each charge in such a manner that it will be released by the firing. Misfires shall be handled in accordance with the requirements of R614-4-18.I.

R614-4-19. Product Testing.

A. Every program for testing of explosive materials shall be examined by the employer for all foreseeable hazards involved in the test. When a specific hazard can be foreseen which affects safety, alternate means for attaining the objectives of the test shall be adopted.

B. No test shall be conducted unless safe testing facilities are available. The employer shall determine the adequacy of available facilities and the need for additional safeguards prior to beginning tests.

C. The test crew shall consist of at least two members during tests: one member of the crew shall serve as safety observer and shall be stationed at a safe location so as to summon help and offer aid in an emergency.

D. The quantity of explosive material taken to a test site shall not exceed that required to conduct the test safely.

E. It shall be the responsibility of the person in charge of the test to take the necessary action to protect by location or distance, personnel that may be endangered by the test.

F. If a test item fails to function (explode) no attempt shall be made to determine the nature of the malfunction until sufficient time has elapsed to assure that the test item is not reacting. The test item shall be handled cautiously, preferably by remote control and disposed of as soon as possible. Care shall be taken to avoid inhaling the reaction products of test compositions.

R614-4-20. Storage of Ammonium Nitrate.

A. Storage

1. Except as provided in R614-4-12. this rule applies to the storage of ammonium nitrate in the form of crystals, flakes, grains, or prills, including fertilizer grade, dynamite grade, nitrous oxide grade, technical grade, and other mixtures containing 60 percent or more ammonium nitrate by weight but does not apply to blasting agents.

2. This rule does not apply to the transportation of ammonium nitrate.

3. The storage of ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures that are more sensitive than allowed by the "Definition of Test Procedures for Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizer" (available from the Fertilizer Institute, 1015 18th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036) is prohibited.

4. Nothing in this rule shall apply to the production of ammonium nitrate or to the storage of ammonium nitrate on the premise of the producing plant.

5. The standards for ammonium nitrate (nitrous oxide grade) are those found in the "Specifications, Properties, and Recommendations for Packaging, Transportation, Storage, and Use of Ammonium Nitrate", Available from the Compressed Gas Association, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10036.

B. General.

1. This rule applies to all persons storing, having, or keeping ammonium nitrate, and to the owner or lessee of any building, premises, or structure in which ammonium nitrate is stored in quantities of 1,000 pounds or more.

2. Approval of large quantity storage shall be subject to due consideration of the fire and explosion hazards, including exposure to toxic vapors from burning or decomposing nitrate.

C. Storage Buildings.

1. Storage buildings shall not have basements unless the basements are open on at least one side. Storage buildings shall not be over one story in height.

2. Storage buildings shall have adequate ventilation, or be of a construction that will be self-ventilating in the event of fire.

3. The wall on the exposed side of a storage building within 50 feet of a combustible building, forest, piles of combustible materials and similar exposure hazards shall be of fire-resistive construction. In lieu of the fire-resistive wall, other suitable means of exposure protection such as a free standing wall may be used. The roof coverings shall be Class C or better, as defined in the Manual on Roof Coverings, NFPA 203M-1970 or latest edition thereof.

4. All flooring in storage and handling areas shall be of noncombustible materials or protected against impregnation by ammonium nitrate and shall be without open drains, traps, tunnels, pits or pockets into which any molten ammonium nitrate could flow and be confined in the event of fire.

5. The continued use of an existing storage building or structure not in strict conformity with this Rule may be approved in cases where such continued use will not constitute a hazard to life.

6. Buildings and structures shall be dry and free from water seepage through the roof, walls, and floors.

D. Storage of Ammonium Nitrate in Bags, Drums, or Other Containers.

1. Bags and Containers

a. Bags and containers used for ammonium nitrate must comply with specifications and standards required for use in interstate commerce.

b. Containers used on the premises in the actual manufacturing or processing need not comply with provisions of R614-4-20.D.1.a.

2. Storage

a. Containers of ammonium nitrate shall not be accepted for storage when the temperature of the ammonium nitrate exceeds 130 degrees F.

b. Bags of ammonium nitrate shall not be stored within 30 inches of the storage building walls and partitions.

c. The height of piles shall not exceed 20 feet. The width of piles shall not exceed 20 feet and the length 50 feet except that where the building is of noncombustible construction or is protected by automatic sprinklers the length of piles shall not be limited. In no case shall the ammonium nitrate be stacked closer than 36 inches below the roof or supporting and spreader beams over head.

d. Aisles shall be provided to separate piles by a clear space of not less than 3 feet in width. At least one service or main aisle in the storage area shall not be less than 4 feet in width.

E. Storage of Bulk Ammonium Nitrate.

1. Warehouses shall have adequate ventilation or be capable of adequate ventilation in case of fire.

2. Unless constructed of noncombustible material or unless adequate facilities for fighting a roof fire are available, bulk storage structures shall not exceed a height of 40 feet.

F. Bins

1. Bins shall be clean and free of materials which may contaminate ammonium nitrate.

2. Due to the corrosive and reactive properties of ammonium nitrate, and to avoid contamination, galvanized iron, copper, lead, and zinc shall not be used in a bin constructed unless suitably protected. Aluminum bins and wooden bins protected against impregnation by ammonium nitrate are permissible. The partitions dividing the ammonium nitrate storage from other products which would contaminate the ammonium nitrate shall be of tight construction.

3. The ammonium nitrate storage bins or piles shall be clearly identified by signs reading "Ammonium Nitrate" with letters at least 2 inches high.

G. General.

1. Piles or bins shall be so sized and arranged that all material in the pile is moved out periodically in order to minimize possible caking of the stored ammonium nitrate.

2. Height or depth of piles shall be limited by the pressure-setting tendency of the product. However, in no case shall ammonium nitrate be piled higher at any point than 36 inches below the roof or supporting and spreader beams over head.

3. Ammonium nitrate shall not be accepted for storage when the temperature of the product exceed 130 degrees F.

4. Dynamite, other explosives, and blasting agents shall not be used to break up or loosen caked ammonium nitrate.

H. Contaminants.

1. Ammonium nitrate shall be in a separate building or shall be separated by approved type fire-walls of not less than 1 hour fire-resistance rating from storage of organic chemicals, acids, or other corrosive materials, materials that may require blasting during processing or handling, compressed flammable and combustible materials or other contaminating substances, including but not limited to animal fats, baled cotton, baled rags, baled scrap paper, bleaching powder, burlap or cotton bags, caustic soda, coal, coke, charcoal, cork, camphor, excelsior, fibers of any kind, fish oils, fish meal, foam rubber, hay, lubricating oil, linseed oil, or other oxidizable or drying oils, naphthalene, oakum, oiled clothing, oiled paper, oiled textiles, paint straw, sawdust, wood shavings, or vegetable oils. Walls referred to in this subdivision need extend only to the underside of the roof.

2. In lieu of separation walls, ammonium nitrate may be separated from the materials referred to in R614-4-20.H.1. by a space of at least 30 feet.

3. Flammable liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, solvents, and light fuel oils shall not be stored on the premises except when such storage conforms to R614-4-1, and when walls and sills or curbs are provided in accordance with R614-4-20.H.1. or 2.

4. LP-gas shall not be stored on the premises except when such storage conforms to 29 CFR 1910.110.

I. Storage.

1. Sulfur and finely divided metals shall not be stored in the same building with ammonium nitrate except when such storage conforms to R614-4-1. through 20.

2. Explosives and blasting agents shall not be stored in the same building with ammonium nitrate except on the premises of makers, distributors, and user-compounders of explosives or blasting agents.

3. Where explosives or blasting agents are stored in separate buildings, other than on the premises of makers, distributors, and user-compounders of explosives or blasting agents, they shall be separated from the ammonium nitrate by the distances and/or barricades specified in R614-4-21 but not less than 50 feet.

4. Storage and/or operations on the premises of makers, distributors and user-compounders of explosives or blasting agents shall be in conformity with R614-4-1. through 20. of these rules.

J. General Precautions.

1. Electrical

a. Electrical installations shall conform to the requirements of 29 CFR 1910 Subpart S, for ordinary locations. They shall be designed to minimize damage from corrosion.

b. In areas where lightning storms are prevalent, lightning protection shall be provided. (See the Lightning Protection Code, NFPA 78-1979).

c. Provisions shall be made to prevent unauthorized personnel from entering the ammonium nitrate storage area.

2. Fire Protection.

a. Not more than 2,500 tons of bagged ammonium nitrate shall be stored in a building or structure not equipped with an automatic sprinkler system. Sprinkler systems shall be approved type and installed in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.159.

b. Suitable fire control devices such as small hose or portable fire extinguishers shall be provided throughout the warehouse and in the loading and unloading area. Suitable fire control devices shall comply with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.157 and 1910.158.

c. Water supplies and fire hydrants shall be available in accordance with recognized good practices.

R614-4-21. Sources of Standards.

The following sources and publications were used in the Development of R614-4.

A. Institute of Makers of Explosives Safety Library Publications, 1575 Eye Street, N.W., Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20005.

B. The American Table of Distances

C. Suggested Code of Regulations for the Manufacture, Transportation, Storage, Sale, Possession, and Use of Explosive Materials.

D. "Do's and Don'ts" Instructions and Warnings

E. Glossary of Industry Terms

F. Safety in the Transportation, Storage, Handling and Use of Explosives.

G. Safety Guide for the Prevention of Radio Frequency Radiation Hazards in the Use of Electric Blasting Caps.

H. IME Standard for the Safe Transportation of Class C Detonators (Blasting Caps) in a Vehicle with Certain Other Explosives.

I. Department of Defense Standards.

Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402

1. DOD 5154.4S DOD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards

2. AMCP 706-186 Engineering Design Handbook, Military Pyrotechnics Series, Part Two--Safety, Procedures and Glossary

3. DOD 4145.26M DOD Contractor's Safety Manual for Ammunition, Explosives and Related Dangerous Material

J. National Fire Protection Association Codes, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston MA 02210.

1. NFPA 44a-1974 Code for the Manufacture, Transportation, and Storage of Fireworks

2. NFPA 495-1973 Code for the Manufacture, Transportation, Storage and Use of Explosive Materials

3. NFPA 492-1976 Separation Distances of Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents from Explosives or Blasting Agents

4. NFPA 203M-1970 Manual on Roof Coverings

5. NFPA 78-1979 Lightning Protection Code

6. NFPA 490-1975 Storage of Ammonium Nitrate

7. NFPA 91-1973 Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying

K. Code of Federal Regulations Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

1. CFR 14 Aeronautics and Space

2. CFR 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms

3. CFR 29 Labor

4. CFR 30 Mineral Resources

5. CFR 46 Shipping

6. CFR 49 Transportation

L. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Reports available from: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical; Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

1. PB 297 827 A Safe Practices Manual for the Manufacturing, Transportation, Storage and Use of Explosives

2. PB 297 807 A Safe Practices Manual for the Manufacturing, Transportation, Storage, and Use of Pyrotechnics

KEY

safety

Date of Enactment or Last Substantive Amendment

December 2, 1997

Notice of Continuation

October 22, 2012

Authorizing, Implemented, or Interpreted Law

34A-6-202


Additional Information

Contact

For questions regarding the content or application of rules under Title R614, please contact the promulgating agency (Labor Commission, Occupational Safety and Health). A list of agencies with links to their homepages is available at https://www.utah.gov/government/agencylist.html.