Utah Administrative Code

The Utah Administrative Code is the body of all effective administrative rules as compiled and organized by the Division of Administrative Rules (see Subsection 63G-3-102(5); see also Sections 63G-3-701 and 702).

NOTE: For a list of rules that have been made effective since October 1, 2019, please see the codification segue page.

NOTE TO RULEFILING AGENCIES: Use the RTF version for submitting rule changes.


R645. Natural Resources; Oil, Gas and Mining; Coal.

Rule R645-100. Administrative: Introduction.

As in effect on October 1, 2019

Table of Contents

R645-100-100. Scope.

110. General Overview. The rules presented herein establish the procedures through which the Utah State Division of Oil, Gas and Mining will implement those provisions of the Coal Mining Reclamation Act of 1979, (the Act) pertaining to the effects of coal mining and reclamation operations and pertaining to coal exploration.

120. R645 Rules Organization. The R645 Rules have been subdivided into the four major functional aspects of the Division's coal mining and exploration State Program.

121. The heading entitled ADMINISTRATIVE encompasses general introductory material, definitions applicable throughout the R645 Rules, procedures for the exemption of certain coal extraction activities, designating areas unsuitable for coal mining, protection of employees, and requirements for blaster certification.

122. The heading entitled COAL EXPLORATION establishes the minimum requirements for acquiring approval and identifies performance standards for coal exploration.

123. The heading entitled COAL MINE PERMITTING describes certain procedural requirements and options attendant to the coal mine permitting process. Moreover, the minimum requirements for acquiring a permit for a coal mining and reclamation operation are identified.

124. The heading entitled INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT delineates the authority, administrative procedures, civil penalties, and employee protection attendant to the Division's inspection and enforcement program.

130. Effective Date. The provisions of R645-100 through and including R645-402 will become effective and enforceable upon final approval by the Office of Surface Mining, U.S. Department of the Interior. Existing coal regulatory program rules, R645 Chapters I and II, will be in effect until approval of R645-100 through R645-402 by the Office of Surface Mining and will be considered repealed upon approval of R645-100 through R645-402.

R645-100-200. Definitions.

As used in the R645 Rules, the following terms have the specified meanings:

"Abandoned site" means, for the purpose of R645-400, a coal mining and reclamation operation for which the Division has found in writing that,

(a) All coal mining and reclamation operations at the site have ceased;

(b) The Division has issued at least one notice of violation or the initial program equivalent, and either:

(i) Is unable to serve the notice despite diligent efforts to do so; or

(ii) The notice was served and has progressed to a failure-to-abate cessation order or the initial program equivalent;

(c) The Division:

(i) Is taking action to ensure that the permittee and operator, and owners and controllers of the permittee and operator, will be precluded from receiving future permits while violations continue at the site; and

(ii) Is taking action pursuant to section 40-10-20(5), 40-10-20(6), 40-10-22(1)(d), or 40-10-22(2)(a) of the Act to ensure that abatement occurs or that there will not be a recurrence of the failure-to-abate, except where after evaluating the circumstances it concludes that further enforcement offers little or no likelihood of successfully compelling abatement or recovering any reclamation costs; and

(d) Where the site is, or was, permitted and bonded:

(i) The permit has either expired or been revoked; and

(ii) The Division has initiated and is diligently pursuing forfeiture of, or has forfeited any available performance bond.

(e) In lieu of the inspection frequency established in R645-400-130, the Division shall inspect each abandoned site on a set frequency commensurate with the public health and safety and environmental considerations present at each specific site, but in no case shall the inspection frequency be set at less than one complete inspection per calendar year.

(1) In selecting an alternate inspection frequency authorized under part (e) of this definition, the Division shall first conduct a complete inspection of the abandoned site and provide public notice under paragraph (2) below. Following the inspection and public notice, the Division shall prepare and maintain for public review a written finding justifying the alternative inspection frequency selected. This written finding shall justify the new inspection frequency by affirmatively addressing in detail all of the following criteria:

(i) How the site meets each of the criteria under the definition of an abandoned site and thereby qualifies for a reduction in inspection frequency;

(ii) Whether, and to what extent, there exist on the site impoundments, earthen structures or other conditions that pose, or may reasonably be expected to change into, imminent dangers to the health or safety of the public or significant environmental harms to land, air or water resources;

(iii) The extent to which existing impoundments or earthen structures were constructed and certified in accordance with prudent engineering designs approved in the permit;

(iv) The degree to which erosion and sediment control is present and functioning;

(v) The extent to which the site is located near or above urbanized areas, communities, occupied dwellings, schools and other public or commercial buildings and facilities;

(vi) The extent of reclamation completed prior to abandonment and the degree of stability of unreclaimed areas, taking into consideration the physical characteristics of the land mined and the extent of settlement or revegetation that has occurred naturally with time; and

(vii) Based on a review of the complete and partial inspection report record for the site during at least the last two consecutive years, the rate at which adverse environmental or public health and safety conditions have and can be expected to progressively deteriorate.

(2) The public notice and opportunity to comment required under part (e)(1) of this definition shall be provided as follows:

(i) The Division shall place a notice in the newspaper with the broadest circulation in the locality of the abandoned site providing the public with a 30-day period in which to submit written comments.

(ii) The public notice shall contain the permittee's name, the permit number, the precise location of the land affected, the inspection frequency proposed, the general reasons for reducing the inspection frequency, the bond status of the permit, the telephone number and address of the office where written comments on the reduced inspection frequency may be submitted, and the closing date of the comment period.

"Account" means the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Account established pursuant to Section 40-10-25 of the Act.

"Acid Drainage" means water with a pH of less than 6.0 and in which total acidity exceeds total alkalinity discharged from an active, inactive, or abandoned coal mining and reclamation operation, or from an area affected by coal mining and reclamation operations.

"Acid-Forming Materials" means earth materials that contain sulfide minerals or other materials which, if exposed to air, water, or weathering processes, form acids that may create acid drainage.

"Act" means Utah Code Annotated Section 40-10-1 et seq.

"Adjacent Area" means the area outside the permit area where a resource or resources, determined according to the context in which adjacent area is used, are or reasonably could be expected to be adversely impacted by proposed coal mining and reclamation operations, including probable impacts from underground workings.

"Administratively Complete Application" means an application for permit approval or approval for coal exploration, where required, which the Division determines to contain information addressing each application requirement of the State Program and to contain all information necessary to initiate processing and public review.

"Affected Area" means any land or water surface area which is used to facilitate, or is physically altered by, coal mining and reclamation operations. The affected area includes the disturbed area; any area upon which coal mining and reclamation operations are conducted; any adjacent lands the use of which is incidental to coal mining and reclamation operations; all areas covered by new or existing roads used to gain access to, or for hauling coal to or from coal mining and reclamation operations, except as provided in this definition; any area covered by surface excavations, workings, impoundments, dams, ventilation shafts, entryways, refuse banks, dumps, stockpiles, overburden piles, spoil banks, culm banks, tailings, holes or depressions, repair areas, storage areas, shipping areas; any areas upon which are sited structures, facilities, or other property material on the surface resulting from, or incident to, coal mining and reclamation operations; and the area located above underground workings. The affected area shall include every road used for purposes of access to, or for hauling coal to or from, coal mining and reclamation operations, unless the road (a) was designated as a public road pursuant to the laws of the jurisdiction in which it is located; (b) is maintained with public funds, and constructed, in a manner similar to other public roads of the same classification within the jurisdiction; and (c) there is substantial (more than incidental) public use. Editorial Note: The definition of "Affected area", insofar, as it excludes roads which are included in the definition of "Surface coal mining operations", was suspended at 51 FR 41960, Nov. 20, 1986. Accordingly, Utah suspends the definition of Affected Area insofar as it excludes roads which are included in the definition of "coal mining and reclamation operations."

"Agricultural Use" means the use of any tract of land for the production of animal or vegetable life. The uses include, but are not limited to, the pasturing, grazing, and watering of livestock, and the cropping, cultivation, and harvesting of plants.

"Alluvial Valley Floors" means the unconsolidated stream-laid deposits holding streams with water availability sufficient for subirrigation or flood irrigation agricultural activities, but does not include upland areas which are generally overlain by a thin veneer of colluvial deposits composed chiefly of debris from sheet erosion, deposits formed by unconcentrated runoff or slope wash, together with talus, or other mass-movement accumulations, and windblown deposits.

"Applicant" means any person seeking a permit, permit change, and permit renewal, transfer, assignment, or sale of permit rights from the Division to conduct coal mining and reclamation operations or, where required, seeking approval for coal exploration.

"Applicant/Violator System" (AVS) means an automated information system of applicant, permitee, operator, violation and related data the Office maintains to assist in implementing the Federal Act.

"Application" means the documents and other information filed with the Division under the R645 Rules for the issuance of permits; permit changes; permit renewals; and transfer, assignment, or sale of permit rights for coal mining and reclamation operations or, where required, for coal exploration.

"Approximate Original Contour" means that surface configuration achieved by backfilling and grading of the mined areas so that the reclaimed area, including any terracing or access roads, closely resembles the general surface configuration of the land prior to mining and blends into and complements the drainage pattern of the surrounding terrain with all highwalls, spoil piles, and coal refuse piles having a design approved under the R645 Rules and prepared for abandonment. Permanent water impoundments may be permitted where the Division has determined that they comply with R645-301-413.100 through R645-301-413.334, R645-301-512.240, R645-301-514.300, R645-301-515.200, R645-301-533.100 through R645-301-533.600, R645-301-542.400, R645-301-733.220 through R645-301-733.224, R645-301-743, R645-302-270 through R645-302-271.400, R645-302-271.600, R645-302-271.800, and R645-302-271.900.

"Aquifer" means a zone, stratum, or group of strata that can store and transmit water in sufficient quantities for a specific use.

"Arid and Semiarid Area" means, in the context of ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS, an area where water use by native vegetation equals or exceeds that supplied by precipitation. All coalfields in Utah are in arid and semiarid areas.

"Auger Mining" means a method of mining coal at a cliff or highwall by drilling holes into an exposed coal seam from the highwall and transporting the coal along an auger bit to the surface.

"Best Technology Currently Available" means equipment, devices, systems, methods, or techniques which will (a) prevent, to the extent possible, additional contributions of suspended solids to stream flow or runoff outside the permit area, but in no event result in contributions of suspended solids in excess of requirements set by applicable state or federal laws; and (b) minimize, to the extent possible, disturbances and adverse impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values, and achieve enhancement of those resources where practicable. The term includes equipment, devices, systems, methods, or techniques which are currently available anywhere as determined by the Director, even if they are not in routine use. The term includes, but is not limited to, construction practices, siting requirements, vegetation selection and planting requirements, animal stocking requirements, scheduling of activities, and design of sedimentation ponds in accordance with R645-301 and R645-302. Within the constraints of the State Program, the Division will have the discretion to determine the best technology currently available on a case-by-case basis, considering among other things the economic feasibility of the equipment, devices, systems, methods or techniques, as authorized by the Act and the R645 Rules.

"Blaster" means a person who is directly responsible for the use of explosives in connection with surface blasting operations incidental to UNDERGROUND COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION ACTIVITIES or SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION ACTIVITIES, and who holds a valid certificate issued by the Division in accordance with the statutes and regulations administered by the Division governing training, examination, and certification of persons responsible for the use of explosives in connection with surface blasting operations incident to coal mining and reclamation operations.

"Board" means the Board of Oil, Gas and Mining for the state of Utah, or the Board's delegated representative.

"Cemetery" means any area of land where human bodies are interred.

"Coal" means combustible carbonaceous rock, classified as anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, or lignite by ASTM Standard D388-95.

"Coal Exploration" means the field gathering of: (a) surface or subsurface geologic, physical, or chemical data by mapping, trenching, drilling, geophysical, or other techniques necessary to determine the quality and quantity of overburden and coal of an area; or (b) the gathering of environmental data to establish the conditions of an area before beginning coal mining and reclamation operations under the requirements of the R645 Rules.

"Coal Mine Waste" means coal processing waste and underground development waste.

"Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations" means (a) activities conducted on the surface of lands in connection with a surface coal mine or, subject to the requirements of Section 40-10-18 of the Act, surface coal mining and reclamation operations and surface impacts incident to an underground coal mine, the products of which enter commerce or the operations of which directly or indirectly affect interstate commerce. Such activities include all activities necessary and incidental to the reclamation of the operations, excavation for the purpose of obtaining coal, including such common methods as contour, strip, auger, mountaintop removal, box cut, open pit, and area mining; the use of explosives and blasting; in-situ distillation; or retorting, leaching, or other chemical or physical processing; and the cleaning, concentrating, or other processing or preparation of coal. Such activities also include the loading of coal for interstate commerce at or near the mine site. Provided, these activities do not include the extraction of coal incidental to the extraction of other minerals, where coal does not exceed 16-2/3 percent of the tonnage of minerals removed for purposes of commercial use or sale, or coal exploration subject to Section 40-10-8 of the Act; and, provided further, that excavation for the purpose of obtaining coal includes extraction of coal from coal refuse piles; and (b) the areas upon which the activities described under part (a) of this definition occur or where such activities disturb the natural land surface. These areas will also include any adjacent land the use of which is incidental to any such activities, all lands affected by the construction of new roads or the improvement or use of existing roads to gain access to the site of those activities and for haulage and excavation, workings, impoundments, dams, ventilation shafts, entryways, refuse banks, dumps, stockpiles, overburden piles, spoil banks, culm banks, tailings, holes or depressions, repair areas, storage areas, processing areas, shipping areas, and other areas upon which are sited structures, facilities, or other property or material on the surface, resulting from or incident to those activities.

"Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations Which Exist on the Date of Enactment" means all coal mining and reclamation operations which were being conducted on August 3, 1977.

"Coal Preparation or Coal Processing" means the chemical and physical processing and the cleaning, concentrating, or other processing or preparation of coal.

"Coal Processing Plant" means a facility where coal is subjected to chemical or physical processing or the cleaning, concentrating, or other processing or preparation. Coal processing plant includes facilities associated with coal processing activities, such as, but not limited to, the following: loading facilities; storage and stockpile facilities; sheds, shops, and other buildings; water-treatment and water-storage facilities; settling basins and impoundments; and coal processing and other waste disposal areas.

"Coal Processing Waste" means earth materials which are separated from the product coal during cleaning, concentrating, or the processing or preparation of coal.

"Collateral Bond" means an indemnity agreement in a sum certain executed by the permittee as principal which is supported by the deposit with the Division of: (a) a cash account, which will be the deposit of cash in one or more federally-insured or equivalently protected accounts, payable only to the Division upon demand, or the deposit of cash directly with the Division; (b) negotiable bonds of the United States, a State, or a municipality, endorsed to the order of, and placed in the possession of, the Division; (c) negotiable certificates of deposit, made payable or assigned to the Division and placed in its possession, or held by a federally insured bank; (d) an irrevocable letter of credit of any bank organized or authorized to transact business in the United States payable only to the Division upon presentation; (e) a perfected, first lien security interest in real property in favor of the Division; or (f) other investment grade rated securities having a rating of AAA or AA or A, or an equivalent rating issued by a nationally recognized securities rating service, endorsed to the order of, and placed in the possession of, the Division.

"Combustible Material" means organic material that is capable of burning, either by fire or through oxidation, accompanied by the evolution of heat and a significant temperature rise.

"Community or Institutional Building" means any structure, other than a public building or an occupied dwelling, which is used primarily for meetings, gatherings or functions of local civic organizations or other community groups; functions including, but not limited to educational, cultural, historic, religious, scientific, correctional, mental-health or physical-health care facility; or is used for public services, including, but not limited to, water supply, power generation, or sewage treatment.

"Compaction" means increasing the density of a material by reducing the voids between the particles, and is generally accomplished by controlled placement and mechanical effort such as from repeated application of wheel, track, or roller loads from heavy equipment.

"Complete and Accurate Application" means an application for permit approval or approval for coal exploration, where required, which the Division determines to contain all information required under the Act, the R645 Rules, and the State Program that is necessary to make a decision on permit issuance.

"Continuously Mined Areas" means land which was mined for coal by underground mining operations prior to August 3, 1977, the effective date of the Federal Act, and where mining continued after that date.

"Control or Controller" means:

(a) A permitee of a coal mining and reclamation operation;

(b) An operator of a coal mining and reclamation operation; or

(c) Any person who has the ability to determine the manner in which a coal mining and reclamation operation is conducted.

"Cooperative Agreement" means the agreement between the Governor of the State of Utah and the Secretary of the Department of the Interior as published at 30 CFR 944.30.

"Cropland" means land used for the production of adapted crops for harvest, alone or in a rotation with grasses and legumes, and includes row crops, small grain crops, hay crops, nursery crops, orchard crops, and other similar specialty crops.

"Cumulative Impact Area" means the area, including the permit area, within which impacts resulting from the proposed operation may interact with the impacts of all anticipated mining on surface and groundwater systems. Anticipated mining will include, at a minimum, the entire projected lives through bond releases of: (a) the proposed operation, (b) all existing operations, (c) any operation for which a permit application has been submitted to the Division, and (d) all operations required to meet diligent development requirements for leased federal coal for which there is actual mine development information available.

"Cumulative measurement period" means, for the purpose of R645-106, the period of time over which both cumulative production and cumulative revenue are measured.

(a) For purposes of determining the beginning of the cumulative measurement period, subject to Division approval, the operator must select and consistently use one of the following:

(i) For mining areas where coal or other minerals were extracted prior to August 3, 1977, the date extraction of coal or other minerals commenced at that mining area or August 3, 1977, or

(ii) For mining areas where extraction of coal or other minerals commenced on or after August 3, 1977, the date extraction of coal or other minerals commenced at that mining area, whichever is earlier.

(b) For annual reporting purposes pursuant to R645-106-900, the end of the period for which cumulative production and revenue is calculated is either

(i) For mining areas where coal or other minerals were extracted prior to July 1, 1992, June 30, 1992, and every June 30 thereafter; or

(ii) For mining areas where extraction of coal or other minerals commenced on or after July 1, 1992, the last day of the calendar quarter during which coal extraction commenced, and each anniversary of that day thereafter.

"Cumulative production" means, for the purpose of R645-106, the total tonnage of coal or other minerals extracted from a mining area during the cumulative measurement period. The inclusion of stockpiled coal and other mineral tonnages in this total is governed by R645-106-700.

"Cumulative revenue" means, for the purpose of R645-106, the total revenue derived from the sale of coal or other minerals and the fair market value of coal or other minerals transferred or used, but not sold, during the cumulative measurement period.

"Current Assets" means cash or other assets or resources which are reasonably expected to be converted to cash or sold or consumed within one year or within the normal operating cycle of the business.

"Current Liabilities" means obligations which are reasonably expected to be paid or liquidated within one year or within the normal operating cycle of the business.

"Direct Financial Interest" means ownership or part ownership by an employee of lands, stocks, bonds, debentures, warrants, partnership shares, or other holdings, and also means any other arrangement where the employee may benefit from his or her holding in or salary from coal mining and reclamation operations. Direct financial interests include employment, pensions, creditor, real property, and other financial relationships.

"Director" means the Director, Utah State Division of Oil, Gas and Mining, or the Director's representative.

"Director of the Office" means the Director of the Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Enforcement, U.S. Department of the Interior.

"Disturbed Area" means an area where vegetation, topsoil, or overburden is removed or upon which topsoil, spoil, coal processing waste, underground development waste, or noncoal waste is placed by coal mining and reclamation operations. Those areas are classified as disturbed until reclamation is complete and the performance bond or other assurance of performance required by R645-301-800 is released. For the purposes of R645-301-356.300, R645-301-356.400, R645-301-513.200, R645-301-742.200 through R645-301-742.240, and R645-301-763, disturbed area will not include those areas (a) in which the only coal mining and reclamation operations include diversion ditches, siltation structures, or roads that are designed, constructed and maintained in accordance with R645-301 and R645-302; and (b) for which the upstream area is not otherwise disturbed by the operator.

"Diversion" means a channel, embankment, or other man-made structure constructed to divert water from one area to another.

"Division" means Utah State Division of Oil, Gas and Mining, the designated state regulatory authority.

"Downslope" means the land surface between the projected outcrop of the lowest coalbed being mined along each highwall and a valley floor.

"Edge Effect" means the positive effect created by the juxtaposition of two diverse habitats.

"Embankment" means an artificial deposit of material that is raised above the natural surface of the land and used to contain, divert, or store water, support roads or railways, or for other similar purposes.

"Employee" means any person employed by the Division who performs any function or duty under the Act, and does not mean the Board of Oil, Gas and Mining which is excluded from this definition.

"Ephemeral Stream" means a stream which flows only in direct response to precipitation in the immediate watershed, or in response to the melting of a cover of snow and ice, and which has a channel bottom that is always above the local water table.

"Essential Hydrologic Functions" means the role of an ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOOR in collecting, storing, regulating, and making the natural flow of surface or ground water, or both, usefully available for agricultural activities by reason of the valley floor's topographic position, the landscape, and the physical properties of its underlying materials. A combination of these functions provides a water supply during extended periods of low precipitation.

"Excess Spoil" means spoil material disposed of in a location other than the mined-out area, provided that the spoil material used to achieve the approximate original contour or to blend the mined-out area with the surrounding terrain in accordance with R645-301-553.220 in nonsteep slope areas will not be considered excess spoil.

"Existing Structure" means a structure or facility used in connection with or to facilitate coal mining and reclamation operations for which construction began prior to January 21, 1981.

"Extraction of Coal as an Incidental Part" means the extraction of coal which is necessary to enable government-financed construction to be accomplished. For purposes of R645-102, only that coal extracted from within the right-of-way in the case of a road, railroad, utility line, or other such construction, or within the boundaries of the area directly affected by other types of government-financed construction, may be considered incidental to that construction. Extraction of coal outside the right-of-way or boundary of the area directly affected by the construction will be subject to the requirements of the Act and the R645 Rules.

"Federal Act" means the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-87).

"Federal Lands" means any land, including mineral interests, owned by the United States without regard to how the United States acquired ownership of the lands or which agency manages the lands. It does not include Indian lands.

"Fixed Assets" means plants and equipment, but does not include land or coal in place.

"Flood Irrigation" means, with respect to ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS, supplying water to plants by natural overflow or the diversion of flows, so that the irrigated surface is largely covered by a sheet of water.

"Fragile Lands" means, for the purposes of R645-103-300, geographic areas containing natural, ecologic, scientific, or aesthetic resources that could be significantly damaged or be destroyed by coal mining and reclamation operations. Examples of fragile lands include valuable habitats for fish or wildlife, critical habitats for endangered or threatened species of animals or plants, uncommon geologic formations, paleontological sites, National Natural Landmark sites, areas where mining may result in flooding, environmental corridors containing a concentration of ecologic and aesthetic features, areas of recreational value due to high environmental quality.

"Fugitive Dust" means that particulate matter not emitted from a duct or stack which becomes airborne due to the forces of wind or coal mining and reclamation operations, or both. During coal mining and reclamation operations, it may include emissions from haul roads; wind erosion of exposed surfaces, storage piles, and spoil piles; reclamation operations; and other activities in which material is either removed, stored, transported, or redistributed.

"Fund" means the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Account established pursuant to 40-10-25 of the Act.

"Government-Financed Construction" means, for the purposes of R645-102, construction funded 50 percent or more by funds appropriated from a government-financing agency's budget or obtained from general revenue bonds, but will not mean government-financing agency guarantees, insurance, loans, funds obtained through industrial revenue bonds or their equivalent, or in-kind payments.

"Government Financing Agency" means, for the purposes of R645-102 a federal, state, county, municipal, or local unit of government, or a department, bureau, agency or office of the unit which, directly or through another unit of government, finances construction.

"Gravity Discharge" means, with respect to UNDERGROUND MINING AND RECLAMATION ACTIVITIES, mine drainage that flows freely in an open channel downgradient. Mine drainage that occurs as a result of flooding a mine, to the level of the discharge, is not gravity discharge.

"Ground Cover" means the area of ground covered by the combined aerial parts of vegetation and the litter that is produced naturally on-site, expressed as a percentage of the total area of measurement.

"Ground Water" means subsurface water that fills available openings in rock or soil materials to the extent that they are considered water saturated.

"Habitats of Unusually High Value for Fish and Wildlife" means an area defined by the state as crucial-critical use areas for wildlife.

"Half-Shrub" means a perennial plant with a woody base whose annually produced stems die back each year.

"Head-of-Hollow Fill" means a fill structure consisting of any material, other than organic material, placed in the uppermost reaches of a hollow where side slopes of the existing hollow, measured at the steepest point, are greater than 20 degrees, or the average slope of the profile of the hollow from the toe of the fill to the top of the fill, is greater than ten degrees. In head-of-hollow fills, the top surface of the fill, when completed, is at approximately the same elevation as the adjacent ridge line, and no significant area of natural drainage occurs above the fill draining into the fill area.

"Higher or Better Uses" means postmining land uses that have a higher economic value or nonmonetary benefit to the landowner, or the community, than the premining land uses.

"Highwall" means the face of exposed overburden and coal in an open cut of surface coal mining and reclamation activities or for entry to underground mining activities.

"Highwall Remnant" means that portion of highwall that remains after backfilling and grading of a REMINING permit area.

"Historic Lands" means, for the purposes of R645-103-300, areas containing historic, cultural, and scientific resources. Examples of historic lands include archeological sites, properties listed on or eligible for listing on a Utah or National Register of Historic Places, National Historic Landmarks, properties having religious or cultural significance to native Americans or religious groups, and properties for which historic designation is pending.

"Historically Used for Cropland" means (a) lands that have been used for cropland for any five years or more out of the ten years immediately preceding the acquisition, including purchase, lease, or option, of the land for the purpose of conducting or allowing through resale, lease, or option the conducting of coal mining and reclamation operations; (b) lands that the Division determines, on the basis of additional cropland history of the surrounding lands and the lands under consideration, that the permit area is clearly cropland but falls outside the specific five-years-in-ten criterion, in which case the regulations for prime farmland may be applied to include more years of cropland history only to increase the prime farmland acreage to be preserved; or (c) lands that would likely have been used as cropland for any five out of the last ten years, immediately preceding such acquisition but for the same fact of ownership or control of the land unrelated to the productivity of the land.

"Hydrologic Balance" means the relationship between the quality and quantity of water inflow to, water outflow from, and water storage in a hydrologic unit such as a drainage basin, aquifer, soil zone, lake, or reservoir. It encompasses the dynamic relationships among precipitation, runoff, evaporation, and changes in ground and surface water storage.

"Hydrologic Regime" means the entire state of water movement in a given area. It is a function of the climate and includes the phenomena by which water first occurs as atmospheric water vapor, passes into a liquid or solid form, falls as precipitation, moves along or into the ground surface and returns to the atmosphere as vapor by means of evaporation and transpiration.

"Imminent Danger to the Health and Safety of the Public" means the existence of any condition or practice, or any violation of a permit or other requirements of the Act in a coal mining and reclamation operation, which could reasonably be expected to cause substantial physical harm to persons outside the permit area before the condition, practice, or violation can be abated. A reasonable expectation of death or serious injury before abatement exists if a rational person, subjected to the same condition or practice giving rise to the peril, would avoid exposure to the danger during the time necessary for abatement.

"Impounding Structure" means a dam, embankment, or other structure used to impound water, slurry, or other liquid or semiliquid material.

"Impoundments" means all water, sediment, slurry, or other liquid or semiliquid holding structures, either naturally formed or artificially built.

"Indian Lands" means all lands, including mineral interests, within the exterior boundaries of any federal Indian reservation, notwithstanding the issuance of any patent, and including rights-of-way, and all lands including mineral interests held in trust for or supervised by an Indian tribe.

"Indirect Financial Interest" means the same financial relationships as for direct ownership, but where the employee reaps the benefits of such interests, including interests held by his or her spouse, minor child(ren) and other relatives, including in-laws, residing in the employee's home. The employee will not be deemed to have an indirect financial interest if there is no relationship between the employee's functions or duties and the coal mining and reclamation operations in which the spouse, minor child(ren), or other resident relatives hold a financial interest.

"In-Situ Processes" means activities conducted on the surface or underground in connection with in-place distillation, retorting, leaching, or other chemical or physical processing of coal. The term includes, but is not limited to, in-situ gasification, in-situ leaching, slurry mining, solution mining, borehole mining, and fluid-recovery mining.

"Intermittent Stream" means a stream, or reach of a stream, that is below the local water table for at least some part of the year and obtains its flow from both surface runoff and groundwater discharge.

"Irreparable Damage to the Environment" means any damage to the environment in violation of the Act, the State Program, or the R645 Rules that cannot be corrected by actions of the applicant.

"Knowing or Knowingly" means that a person who authorized, ordered, or carried out an act or omission knew or had reason to know that the act or omission would result in either a violation or a failure to abate or correct a violation.

"Land Use" means specific uses or management-related activities, rather than the vegetation or cover of the land. Land uses may be identified in combination when joint or seasonal uses occur and may include land used for support facilities that are an integral part of the use. Changes of land use from one of the following categories to another will be considered as a change to an alternative land use which is subject to approval by the Division.

CROPLAND - Land used for the production of adapted crops for harvest, alone or in rotation with grasses and legumes, that include row crops, small grain crops, hay crops, nursery crops, orchard crops, and other similar crops.

DEVELOPED WATER RESOURCES - Land used for storing water for beneficial uses such as stock ponds, irrigation, fire protection, flood control, and water supply.

FISH AND WILDLIFE HABITAT - Land dedicated wholly or partially to the production, protection, or management of species of fish or wildlife.

FORESTRY - Land used or managed for the long-term production of wood, wood fiber, or wood-derived products.

GRAZING LAND - Land used for grasslands and forest lands where the indigenous vegetation is actively managed for grazing, browsing, or occasional hay production.

INDUSTRIAL/COMMERCIAL - Land used for (a) extraction or transformation of materials for fabrication of products, wholesaling of products, or long-term storage of products; this includes all heavy and light manufacturing facilities, or (b) retail or trade of goods or services, including hotels, motels, stores, restaurants, and other commercial establishments.

PASTURE LAND OR LAND OCCASIONALLY CUT FOR HAY - Land used primarily for the long-term production of adapted, domesticated forage plants to be grazed by livestock or occasionally cut and cured for livestock feed.

RECREATION - Land used for public or private leisure-time activities, including developed recreation facilities such as parks, camps, and amusement areas, as well as areas for less intensive uses such as hiking, canoeing, and other undeveloped recreational uses.

RESIDENTIAL - Land used for single and multiple-family housing, mobile home parks, or other residential lodgings.

UNDEVELOPED LAND OR NO CURRENT USE OR LAND MANAGEMENT - Land that is undeveloped or if previously developed, land that has been allowed to return naturally to an undeveloped state or has been allowed to return to forest through natural succession.

"Liabilities" means obligations to transfer assets or provide services to other entities in the future as a result of past transactions.

"Material Damage" for the purposes of R645-301-525, means:

(a) Any functional impairment of surface lands, features, structures or facilities;

(b) Any physical change that has a significant adverse impact on the affected land's capability to support any current or reasonably foreseeable uses or causes significant loss in production or income; or

(c) Any significant change in the condition, appearance or utility of any structure or facility from its pre-subsidence condition.

"Materially Damage the Quantity or Quality of Water" means, with respect to ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS, to degrade or reduce, by coal mining and reclamation operations, the water quantity or quality supplied to the alluvial valley floor to the extent that resulting changes would significantly decrease the capability of the alluvial valley floor to support agricultural activities.

"Mining" means, for the purposes of R645-400-351, (a) extracting coal from the earth or coal waste piles and transporting it within or from the permit area; and (b) the processing, cleaning, concentrating, preparing or loading of coal where such operations occur at a place other than a mine site.

"Mining area" means, for the purpose of R645-106, an individual excavation site or pit from which coal, other minerals and overburden are removed.

"Moist Bulk Density" means the weight of soil (oven dry)per unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field moisture capacity (1/3 bar moisture tension). Weight is determined after drying the soil at 105 degrees Celsius.

"NRCS" means Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

"MSHA" means the Mine Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor.

"Mulch" means vegetation residues or other suitable materials that aid in soil stabilization and soil moisture conservation, thus providing microclimatic conditions suitable for germination and growth.

"Natural Hazard Lands" means, for the purposes of R645-103-300, geographic areas in which natural conditions exist which pose or, as a result of coal mining and reclamation operations, may pose a threat to the health, safety, or welfare of people, property or the environment, including areas subject to landslides, cave-ins, large or encroaching sand dunes, severe wind or soil erosion, frequent flooding, avalanches, and areas of unstable geology.

"Net Worth" means total assets minus total liabilities and is equivalent to owners' equity.

"Non-commercial Building" means any building, other than an occupied residential dwelling, that, at the time the subsidence occurs, is used on a regular or temporary basis as a public building or community or institutional building as those terms are defined at R645-100-200. Any building used only for commercial agricultural, industrial, retail or other commercial enterprises is excluded.

"Noxious Plants" means species that have been included on the official Utah list of noxious plants.

"Occupied Dwelling" means any building that is currently being used on a regular or temporary basis for human habitation.

"Occupied Residential Dwelling and Structures Related Thereto" means, for purposes of R645-301, any building or other structure that, at the time the subsidence occurs, is used either temporarily, occasionally, seasonally, or permanently for human habitation. This term also includes any building, structure or facility installed on, above or below, or a combination thereof, the land surface if that building, structure or facility is adjunct to or used in connection with an occupied residential dwelling. Examples of such structures include, but are not limited to, garages; storage sheds and barns; greenhouses and related buildings; utilities and cables; fences and other enclosures; retaining walls; paved or improved patios, walks and driveways; septic sewage treatment facilities; and lot drainage and lawn and garden irrigation systems. Any structure used only for commercial agricultural, industrial, retail or other commercial purposes is excluded.

"Office" means Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, U.S. Department of the Interior.

"Operator" means any person engaged in coal mining who removes, or intends to remove, more than 250 tons of coal from the earth or from coal refuse piles by mining within 12 consecutive calendar months in any one location.

"Other minerals" means, for the purpose of R645-106, any commercially valuable substance mined for its mineral value, excluding coal, topsoil, waste and fill material.

"Other Treatment Facilities" means, for the purposes of R645-301-356.300, R645-301-356.400, R645-301-513.200, R645-301-742.200 through R645-301-742.240, and R645-301-763, any chemical treatments, such as flocculation or neutralization, or mechanical structures, such as clarifiers or precipitators, that have a point source discharge and that are utilized to prevent additional contribution of dissolved or suspended solids to stream flow or runoff outside the permit area or to comply with all applicable State and Federal water quality laws and regulations.

"Outslope" means the face of the spoil or embankment sloping downward from the highest elevation to the toe.

"Overburden" means material of any nature, consolidated or unconsolidated, that overlies a coal deposit, excluding topsoil.

"Own, Owner, or Ownership" means being a sole proprietor or owning of record in excess of 50 percent of the voting securities or other instruments of ownership of an entity, except when used in the context of ownership of real property.

"Parent Corporation" means corporation which owns or controls the applicant.

"Perennial Stream" means a stream or part of a stream that flows continuously during all of the calendar year as a result of groundwater discharge or surface runoff. The term does not include intermittent stream or ephemeral stream.

"Performance Bond" means a surety bond, collateral bond, or self-bond, or a combination thereof, by which a permittee assures faithful performance of all the requirements of the Act, the R645 Rules, the State Program, and the requirements of the permit and reclamation plan.

"Performing Any Function or Duty Under This Act" means those decisions or actions, which if performed or not performed by a board member or employee, affect the State Program under the Act.

"Permanent Diversion" means a diversion remaining after coal mining and reclamation operations are completed which has been approved for retention by the Division and other appropriate state and federal agencies.

"Permanent Impoundment" means an impoundment which is approved by the Division and, if required, by other state and federal agencies for retention as part of the postmining land use.

"Permit" means a permit to conduct coal mining and reclamation operations issued by the Division pursuant to the State Program. For purposes of the federal lands program, permit means a permit issued by the Division pursuant to the cooperative agreement with the Secretary.

"Permit Area" means the area of land, indicated on the approved map submitted by the operator with his or her application, required to be covered by the operator's performance bond under R645-301-800, and which will include the area of land upon which the operator proposes to conduct coal mining and reclamation operations under the permit, including all disturbed areas, provided that areas adequately bonded under another valid permit may be excluded from the permit area.

"Permit Change" means any coal mining and reclamation operations not previously approved by the Division in the Permit or in any previously-approved permit change under R645-303-220.

"Permittee" means a person holding, or required by the Act or the R645 Rules to hold, a permit to conduct coal mining and reclamation operations issued by the Division pursuant to the State Program or, under the cooperative agreement pursuant to Section 523 of P.L. 95-87, by the Director of the Office and the Division.

"Person" means an individual, Indian tribe when conducting coal mining and reclamation operations on non-Indian lands, partnership, association, society, joint venture, joint-stock company, firm, company, corporation, cooperative or other business organization, and any agency, unit, or instrumentality of federal, state, or local government including any publicly owned utility or publicly owned corporation of federal, state, or local governments.

"Person Having an Interest Which Is or May Be Adversely Affected or Person With a Valid Legal Interest" means any person (a) who uses any resource of economic, recreational, aesthetic, or environmental value that may be adversely affected by coal exploration or coal mining and reclamation operations or any related action of the Division, or the Board, or (b) whose property is or may be adversely affected by coal exploration or coal mining and reclamation operations or any related action of the Division or the Board.

"Precipitation Event" means a quantity of water resulting from drizzle, rain, snow, sleet, or hail in a limited period of time. It may be expressed in terms of recurrence interval. As used in the R645 Rules, precipitation event also includes that quantity of water emanating from snow cover as snowmelt in a limited period of time.

"Previously Mined Area" means land affected by coal mining and reclamation operations prior to August 3, 1977, that has not been reclaimed to the standards of Ut. Admin. R645 or 30 CFR chapter VII.

"Prime Farmland" means those lands which are defined by the Secretary of Agriculture in 7 CFR 657 (Federal Register Vol. 4 No. 21) and which have historically been used for cropland as that phrase is defined herein.

"Principal Shareholder" means any person who is the record or beneficial owner of ten percent or more of any class of voting stock.

"Prohibited Financial Interest" means any direct or indirect financial interest in any coal mining and reclamation operation.

"Property to be Mined" means both the surface estates and mineral estates within the permit area and the area covered by underground workings.

"Public Building" means any structure that is owned or leased and principally used by a government agency for public business or meetings.

"Public Office" means a facility under the direction and control of a governmental entity which is open to public access on a regular basis during reasonable business hours.

"Public Park" means an area or portion of an area dedicated or designated by any federal, state, or local agency primarily for public recreational use, whether or not such use is limited to certain times or days, including any land leased, reserved, or held open to the public because of that use.

"Public Road", for the purpose of part R645-103-200, R645-301-521.123, and R645-301-521.133 means a road (a) which has been designated as a public road pursuant to the laws of the jurisdiction in which it is located; (b) which is maintained with public funds in a manner similar to other public roads of the same classification within the jurisdiction; (c) for which there is substantial (more than incidental) public use; and (d) which meets road construction standards for other public roads of the same classification in the local jurisdiction.

"Publicly Owned Park" means a public park that is owned by a federal, state, or local governmental entity.

"Qualified Laboratory" means, for the purposes of R645-302-290, a designated public agency, private firm, institution, or analytical laboratory which can prepare the required determination of probable hydrologic consequences, statement of results of test borings or core samplings under SOAP, or other services as specified at R645-302-299 and which meet the standards of R645-302-295.100.

"Rangeland" means land on which the natural potential (climax) plant cover is principally native grasses, forbs, and shrubs valuable for forage. This land includes natural grasslands and savannahs, such as prairies, and juniper savannahs, such as brushlands. Except for brush control, management is primarily achieved by regulating the intensity of grazing and season of use.

"Reasonably Available Spoil" means spoil and suitable coal mine waste material generated by the remining activity or other spoil or suitable coal mine waste material located in the permit area that is accessible and available for use, and that when rehandled will not cause a hazard to public safety or significant damage to the environment.

"Recharge Capacity" means the ability of the soils and underlying materials to allow precipitation and runoff to infiltrate and reach the zone of saturation.

"Reclamation" means those actions taken to restore mined land as required by the R645 Rules to a postmining land use approved by the Division.

"Recurrence Interval" means the interval of time in which a precipitation event is expected to occur once, on the average. For example, the 10-year 24-hour precipitation event would be that 24-hour precipitation event expected to occur on the average once in ten years.

"Reference Area" means a land unit maintained under appropriate management for the purpose of measuring vegetation ground cover, productivity, and plant species diversity that are produced naturally or by crop production methods approved by the Division. Reference areas must be representative of geology, soil, slope, and vegetation in the permit area.

"Refuse Pile" means a surface deposit of coal mine waste that does not impound water, slurry, or other liquid or semiliquid material.

"Remining" means conducting coal mining and reclamation operations which affect previously mined areas.

"Renewable Resource Lands" means aquifers and areas for the recharge of aquifers and other underground waters, areas for agricultural or silvicultural production of food and fiber, and grazing lands. For the purposes of R645-103, RENEWABLE RESOURCE LANDS means geographic areas which contribute significantly to the long-range productivity of water supply or of food or fiber products, such lands to include aquifers and aquifer recharge areas.

"Renewal of a Permit" means, for the purposes of R645-302-300, a decision by the Division to extend the time by which the permittee may complete mining within the boundaries of the original permit.

"Replacement of Water Supply" means, with respect to State-appropriated water supplies contaminated, diminished, or interrupted by coal mining and reclamation operations, provision of water supply on both a temporary and permanent basis equivalent to premining quantity and quality. Replacement includes provision of an equivalent water delivery system and payment of operation and maintenance costs in excess of customary and reasonable delivery costs for premining water supplies.

(a) Upon agreement by the permittee and the water supply owner, the obligation to pay such operation and maintenance costs may be satisfied by a one-time payment in an amount which covers the present worth of the increased annual operation and maintenance costs for a period agreed to by the permittee and the water supply owner.

(b) If the affected water supply was not needed for the land use in existence at the time of loss, contamination, or diminution, and if the supply is not needed to achieve the postmining land use, replacement requirements may be satisfied by demonstrating that a suitable alternative water source is available and could feasibly be developed. If the latter approach is selected, written concurrence must be obtained from the water supply owner.

"Road" means a surface right-of-way for purposes of travel by land vehicles used in coal mining and reclamation operations or coal exploration. A road consists of the entire area within the right-of-way, including the roadbed, shoulders, parking and side areas, approaches, structures, ditches, and surface. The term includes access and haul roads constructed, used, reconstructed, improved, or maintained for use in coal mining and reclamation operations or coal exploration, including use by coal hauling vehicles to and from transfer, processing, or storage areas. The term does not include ramps and routes of travel within the immediate mining area or within spoil or coal mine waste disposal areas.

"Safety Factor" means the ratio of the available shear strength to the developed shear stress, or the ratio of the sum of the resisting forces to the sum of the loading or driving forces, as determined by accepted engineering practices.

"Secretary" means the Secretary of the Department of Interior or his or her representative.

"Sedimentation Pond" means an impoundment used to remove solids from water in order to meet water quality standards or effluent limitations before the water leaves the permit area.

"Self Bond" means an indemnity agreement in a sum certain executed by the applicant or by the applicant and any corporate guarantor, and made payable to the Division with or without separate surety.

"Significant Forest Cover" means an existing plant community consisting predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation. The Secretary of Agriculture will decide on a case-by-case basis whether the forest cover is significant within those national forests in Utah.

"Significant, Imminent Environmental Harm to Land, Air, or Water Resources" means (a) the environmental harm has an adverse impact on land, air, or water resources which resources include, but are not limited to, plant and animal life; (b) an environmental harm is imminent, if a condition, practice, or violation exists which (i) is causing such harm, or (ii) may reasonably be expected to cause such harm at any time before the end of the reasonable abatement time that would be set under 40-10-22 of the Act, and (c) an environmental harm is significant if that harm is appreciable and not immediately repairable.

"Significant Recreational, Timber, Economic, or Other Values Incompatible With Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations" means those values to be evaluated for their significance which could be damaged by, and are not capable of existing together with, coal mining and reclamation operations because of the undesirable effects mining would have on those values, either on the area included in the permit application or on other affected areas. Those values to be evaluated for their importance include (a) recreation, including hiking, boating, camping, skiing, or other related outdoor activities, (b) timber management and silviculture, (c) agriculture, aquaculture, or production of other natural, processed, or manufactured products which enter commerce, and (d) scenic, historic, archaeologic, aesthetic, fish, wildlife, plants, or cultural interests.

"Siltation Structure" means, for the purposes of R645-301-356.300, R645-301-356.400, R645-301-513.200, R645-301-742.200 through R645-301-742.240, and R645-301-763, a sedimentation pond, a series of sedimentation ponds or other treatment facilities.

"Slope" means average inclination of a surface, measured from the horizontal, generally expressed as the ratio of a unit of vertical distance to a given number of units of horizontal distance (e.g., 1v:5h). It may also be expressed as a percent or in degrees.

"SOAP" means Small Operator Assistance Program.

"Soil Horizons" means contrasting layers of soil parallel or nearly parallel to the land surface. Soil horizons are differentiated on the basis of field characteristics and laboratory data. The four major soil horizons are"

A HORIZON - The uppermost mineral layer, often called the surface soil. It is the part of the soil in which organic matter is most abundant, and leaching of soluble or suspended particles is typically the greatest.

E HORIZON - The layer commonly near the surface below an A horizon and above a B horizon. An E horizon is most commonly differentiated from an overlying A horizon by lighter color and generally has measurably less organic matter than the A horizon. An E horizon is most commonly differentiated from an underlying B horizon in the same sequum by color of higher value or lower chroma, by coarser texture, or by a combination of these properties.

B HORIZON - The layer that typically is immediately beneath the E horizon and often called the subsoil. This middle layer commonly contains more clay, iron, or aluminum than the A, E, or C horizons.

C HORIZON - The deepest layer of soil profile. It consists of loose material or weathered rock that is relatively unaffected by biologic activity.

"Soil Survey" means a field and other investigations resulting in a map showing the geographic distribution of different kinds of soils and an accompanying report that describes, classifies, and interprets such soils for use. Soil surveys must meet the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey as incorporated by reference in R645-302-314.100.

"Spoil" means overburden that has been removed during coal mining and reclamation operations.

"Stabilize" means to control movement of soil, spoil piles, or areas of disturbed earth by modifying the geometry of the mass, or by otherwise modifying physical or chemical properties, such as by providing a protective surface coating.

"State Program" means the program established by the state of Utah and approved by the Secretary of the Department of the Interior pursuant to the Federal Act and the Act to regulate coal mining and reclamation operations on non-Indian and non-federal lands within Utah, according to the Federal Act, the Act and the R645 Rules. Pursuant to the cooperative agreement between the state of Utah and the Office, the State Program applies to federal lands in accordance with the terms of the cooperative agreement.

"Steep Slope" means any slope of more than 20 degrees or such lesser slope as may be designated by the Division after consideration of soil, climate, and other characteristics of a region or Utah.

"Subirrigation" means, with respect to ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS, the supplying of water to plants from underneath or from a semisaturated or saturated subsurface zone where water is available for use by vegetation.

"Substantial Legal and Financial Commitments in a Coal Mining and Reclamation Operation" means, for the purposes of R645-103-300, significant investments that have been made on the basis of a long-term coal contract in power plants, railroads, coal-handling, preparation, extraction or storage facilities, and other capital-intensive activities. An example would be an existing mine not actually producing coal, but in a substantial stage of development prior to production. Costs of acquiring the coal in place or the right to mine it without an existing mine, as described in the above example, alone are not sufficient to constitute substantial legal and financial commitments.

"Substantially Disturb" means, for purposes of COAL EXPLORATION, to significantly impact land or water resources by blasting; by removal of vegetation, topsoil, or overburden; by construction of roads or other access routes; by placement of excavated earth or waste material on the natural land surface or by other such activities; or to remove more than 250 tons of coal.

"Successor in Interest" means any person who succeeds to rights granted under a permit, by transfer, assignment, or sale of those rights.

"Surety Bond" means an indemnity agreement in a sum certain payable to the Division, executed by the permittee as principal and which is supported by the performance guarantee of a corporation licensed to do business as a surety in Utah.

"Surface Operations and Impacts Incident to an Underground Coal Mine" means all operations involved in or related to UNDERGROUND COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION ACTIVITIES which are either conducted on the surface of the land, produce changes in the land surface or disturb the surface, air, or water resources of the area including all activities listed in 40-10-3(20) of the Act and the definition of underground mining activities appearing herein.

"SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION ACTIVITIES" means those coal mining and reclamation operations incident to the extraction of coal from the earth by removing the materials over a coal seam, before recovering the coal, by auger coal mining, or by recovery of coal from a deposit that is not in its original geologic location.

"Suspended Solids or Nonfilterable Residue, Expressed as Milligrams Per Liter" means organic or inorganic materials carried or held in suspension in water which are retained by a standard glass fiber filter in the procedure outlined by the Environmental Protection Agency's regulation for waste water and analyses (40 CFR Part 136).

"Tangible Net Worth" means net worth minus intangibles such as goodwill and rights to patents or royalties.

"Temporary Diversion" means a diversion of a stream, or overland flow, which is used during coal exploration or coal mining and reclamation operations and not approved by the Division to remain after reclamation as part of the approved postmining land use.

"Temporary Impoundment" means an impoundment used during coal mining and reclamation operations, but not approved by the Division to remain as part of the approved postmining land use.

"Ton" means 2,000 pounds avoirdupois (.90718 metric ton).

"Topsoil" means the A and E soil horizon layers of the four major soil horizons.

"Toxic-Forming Materials" means earth materials or wastes which, if acted upon by air, water, weathering, or microbiological processes are likely to produce chemical or physical conditions in soils or water that are detrimental to biota or uses of water.

"Toxic Mine Drainage" means water that is discharged from active or abandoned mines or other areas affected by coal exploration or coal mining and reclamation operations which contains a substance that through chemical action or physical effects is likely to kill, injure, or impair biota commonly present in the area that might be exposed to it.

"Transfer, Assignment, or Sale of Permit Rights" means a change of a permittee.

"UNDERGROUND COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION ACTIVITIES" means coal mining and reclamation operations incident to the extraction of coal by underground methods including a combination of (a) underground extraction of coal or in situ processing, construction use, maintenance, and reclamation of roads, above-ground repair areas, storage areas, processing areas, shipping areas, areas upon which are sited support facilities including hoist and ventilating ducts, areas utilized for the disposal and storage of waste, and areas on which materials incident to underground mining operations are placed; and (b) underground operations such as underground construction, operation, and reclamation of shafts, adits, underground support facilities, in situ processing, and underground mining, hauling, storage, and blasting.

"Underground Development Waste" means waste-rock mixtures of coal, shale, claystone, siltstone, sandstone, limestone, or related materials that are excavated, moved, and disposed of from underground workings in connection with UNDERGROUND COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION ACTIVITIES.

"Undeveloped Rangeland" means, for purposes of ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS, lands where the use is not specifically controlled and managed.

"Unwarranted Failure to Comply" means the failure of the permittee to prevent the occurrence of any violation of the State Program or any permit condition due to indifference, lack of diligence, or lack of reasonable care, or the failure to abate any violation of such permit of the Act due to indifference, lack of diligence, or lack of reasonable care.

"Upland Areas" means, with respect to ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS, those geomorphic features located outside the floodplain and terrace complex such as isolated higher terraces, alluvial fans, pediment surfaces, landslide deposits, and surfaces covered with residuum, mud flows, or debris flows, as well as highland areas underlain by bedrock and covered by residual weathered material or debris deposited by sheetwash, rillwash, or windblown material.

"Valid Existing Rights" means a set of circumstances under which a person may, subject to regulatory authority approval, conduct coal mining and reclamation operations on lands where Subsection 40-10-24(4) of the Act and R645-103-224 would otherwise prohibit such operations. Possession of valid existing rights only confers an exception from the prohibitions of R645-103-224 and Subsection 40-10-24(4) of the Act. A person seeking to exercise valid existing rights must comply with all other pertinent requirements of the Federal Act and the State Program.

(a) Property rights demonstration. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this definition, a person claiming valid existing rights must demonstrate that a legally binding conveyance, lease, deed, contract, or other document vests that person, or a predecessor in interest, with the right to conduct the type of coal mining and reclamation operations intended. This right must exist at the time that the land came under the protection of R645-103-224 or Subsection 40-10-24(4) of the Act. Applicable Utah statutory or case law will govern interpretation of documents relied upon to establish property rights, unless Federal law provides otherwise. If no applicable Utah law exists, custom and generally accepted usage at the time and place that the documents came into existence will govern their interpretation.

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this definition, a person claiming valid existing rights also must demonstrate compliance with one of the following standards:

(i) Good faith/all permits standard. All permits and other authorizations required to conduct coal mining and reclamation operations had been obtained, or a good faith effort to obtain all necessary permits and authorizations had been made, before the land came under the protection of R645-103-224 or Subsection 40-10-24(4) of the Act. At a minimum, an application must have been submitted for any permit required under R645-201, R645-301 or R645-302; or

(ii) Needed for and adjacent standard. The land is needed for and immediately adjacent to a coal mining and reclamation operation for which all permits and other authorizations required to conduct coal mining and reclamation operations had been obtained, or a good faith attempt to obtain all permits and authorizations had been made, before the land came under the protection of R645-103-224 or Subsection 40-10-24(4) of the Act. To meet this standard, a person must demonstrate that prohibiting expansion of the operation onto that land would unfairly impact the viability of the operation as originally planned before the land came under the protection of R645-103-224 or Subsection 40-10-24(4) of the Act. Except for operations in existence before August 3, 1977, or for which a good faith effort to obtain all necessary permits had been made before August 3, 1977, this standard does not apply to lands already under the protection of R645-103-224 or Subsection 40-10-24(4) of the Act when the Division approved the permit for the original operation or when the good faith effort to obtain all necessary permits for the original operation was made. In evaluating whether a person meets this standard, the Division may consider factors such as:

(A) The extent to which coal supply contracts or other legal and business commitments that predate the time that the land came under the protection of R645-103-224 or Subsection 40-10-24(4) of the Act depends upon use of that land for coal mining and reclamation operations;

(B) The extent to which plans used to obtain financing for the operation before the land came under the protection of R645-103-224 or Subsection 40-10-24(4) of the Act rely upon use of that land for coal mining and reclamation operations;

(C) The extent to which investments in the operation before the land came under the protection of R645-103-224 or Subsection 40-10-24(4) of the Act rely upon use of that land for coal mining and reclamation operations;

(D) Whether the land lies within the area identified on the life-of-mine map submitted under R645-301-521.141 before the land came under the protection of R645-103-224.

(c) Roads. A person who claims valid existing rights to use or construct a road across the surface of lands protected by R645-103-224 or Subsection 40-10-24(4) of the Act must demonstrate that one or more of the following circumstances exist if the road is included within the definition of coal mining and reclamation operations:

(i) The road existed when the land upon which it is located came under the protection of R645-103-224 or Subsection 40-10-24(4) of the Act, and the person has a legal right to use the road for coal mining and reclamation operations;

(ii) A properly recorded right of way or easement for a road in that location existed when the land came under the protection of R645-103-224 or Subsection 40-10-24(4) of the Act, and, under the document creating the right of way or easement, and under subsequent conveyances, the person has a legal right to use or construct a road across the right of way or easement for coal mining and reclamation operations;

(iii) A valid permit for use or construction of a road in that location for coal mining and reclamation operations existed when the land came under the protection of R645-103-224 or Subsection 40-10-24(4) of the Act; or

(iv) Valid existing rights exist under paragraphs (a) and (b) of this definition.

"Valley Fill" means a fill structure consisting of any material, other than organic material, that is placed in a valley where side slopes of the existing valley, measured at the steepest point, are greater than 20 degrees, or where the average slope of the profile of the valley from the toe of the fill to the top of the fill is greater than ten degrees.

"Violation" when used in the context of the permit application information or permit eligibility requirements of Section 40-10-10(2) and Subsection 40-10-11(3) and related rules, means:

(a) A failure to comply with an applicable provision of a federal or state law or regulation pertaining to air or water environmental protection, as evidenced by a written notification from a governmental entity to the responsible person; or

(b) A noncompliance for which the Division or the Office have provided one or more of the following types of notice:

(i) A notice of violation under R645-400-320;

(ii) A cessation order under R645-400-310;

(iii) A final order, bill, or demand letter pertaining to a delinquent civil penalty assessed under R645-401 or R645-402;

(iv) A bill or demand letter pertaining to delinquent reclamation fees owed under 30 CFR 870, Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund - Fee Collection and Coal Reporting; or

(v) A notice of bond forfeiture under R645-301-880.900, when:

(A) One or more violations upon which the forfeiture was based have not been abated or corrected;

(B) The amount forfeited and collected is insufficient for full reclamation under R645-301-880.931, the Division orders reimbursement for additional reclamation costs, and the person has not complied with the reimbursement order; or

(C) The site is covered by an alternative bonding system approved under 30 CFR 800.11(e), that system requires reimbursement of any reclamation costs incurred by the system above those covered by any site-specific bond and the person has not complied with the reimbursement requirement and paid any associated penalties.

"Violation, Failure, or Refusal" means for the purposes of R645-402, (a) A violation of a condition of a permit issued under the State Program, or (b) A failure or refusal to comply with any order issued under UCA 40-10-22, or any order incorporated in a final decision issued under UCA 40-10-20(2) or R645-104-500.

"Violation Notice" means any written notification from a governmental entity of a violation of law, as specified in the definition in this section, whether by letter, memorandum, legal or administrative pleading, or other written communication.

"Water Supply", "State-appropriated Water", and "State-appropriated Water Supply" are all synonymous terms and mean, for the purposes of the R645 Rules, state appropriated water rights which are recognized by the Utah Constitution or Utah Code.

"Water Table" means the upper surface of a zone of saturation where the body of ground water is not confined by an overlying impermeable zone.

"Willful or Willfully" means that a person acted (a) either intentionally, voluntarily, or consciously, and (b) with intentional disregard or plain indifference to legal requirements in authorizing, ordering, or carrying out an action or omission that constituted a violation, failure, or refusal.

R645-100-300. Responsibility.

310. The Division is responsible for the regulation of coal mining and reclamation operations and coal exploration under the approved State Program on non-federal and non-Indian lands in accordance with the procedures in the R645 Rules.

320. The Division, through a cooperative agreement, exercises certain authority relating to the regulation of coal mining and reclamation operations on federal lands in accordance with 30 CFR Part 745.

R645-100-400. Applicability.

410. Except as provided under R645-100-420, the R645 Rules apply to all coal exploration and coal mining and reclamation operations, except:

411. The extraction of coal by a landowner for his or her own noncommercial use from land owned or leased by him or her. Noncommercial use does not include the extraction of coal by one unit of an integrated company or other business or nonprofit entity which uses the coal in its own manufacturing or power plants;

412. The extraction of 250 tons of coal or less by a person conducting coal mining and reclamation operations. A person who intends to remove more than 250 tons is not exempted;

413. The extraction of coal as an incidental part of federal, state or local government-financed highway or other construction in accordance with R645-102.

414. The extraction of coal incidental to the extraction of other minerals where coal does not exceed 16-2/3 percent of the mineral tonnage removed for commercial use or sale in accordance with R645-106; or

415. Coal exploration on lands subject to the requirements of 43 CFR Parts 3480-3487.

420. Existing Structure Exemption. Each structure used in connection with or to facilitate coal exploration or coal mining and reclamation operations will comply with the performance standards and design requirements of R645-301 and R645-302, except that:

421. An existing structure which meets the performance standards but does not meet the design requirements of R645-301 and R645-302 may be exempted from meeting those design requirements by the Division. The Division may grant this exemption only as part of the permit application process after obtaining the information required by R645-301-526.110 through R645-301-526.115.4 and after making the findings required by R645-300-130.

422. If the performance standard of the MC Rules (Interim Program Rules) is at least as stringent as the comparable performance standard of the R645 Rules, an existing structure which meets the performance standards of the MC Rules may be exempted by the Division from meeting the design requirements of the R645 Rules. The Division may grant this exemption only as part of the permit application process after obtaining the information required by R645-301-526.110 through R645-301-526.115.4 and after making the findings required by R645-300-130.

423. An existing structure which meets a performance standard of the MC Rules which is less stringent than the comparable performance standard in the R645 Rules will be modified or reconstructed to meet the design standard of the R645 Rules pursuant to a compliance plan approved by the Division only as part of the permit application as required in R645-301-526.110 through R645-301-526.115.4 and according to the findings required by R645-300-130.

424. An existing structure which does not meet the performance standards of the MC Rules and which the applicant proposes to use, in connection with or to facilitate the coal exploration or coal mining and reclamation operation, will be modified or reconstructed to meet the performance design standards of R645-301 and R645-302 prior to issuance of the permit.

430. The exemptions provided in paragraphs R645-100-421 and R645-100-422 will not apply to:

431. The requirements for existing and new coal mine waste disposal facilities; and

432. The requirements to restore the approximate original contour of the land.

440. Regulatory Determination of Exemption. The Division may, on its own initiative, and will, within a reasonable time of a request from any person who intends to conduct coal mining and reclamation operations, make a written determination whether the operation is exempt under R645-100-400. The Division will give reasonable notice of the request to interested persons. Prior to the time a determination is made, any person may submit, and the Division will consider, any written information relevant to the determination. A person requesting that an activity be declared exempt will have the burden of establishing the exemption. If a written determination of exemption is reversed through subsequent administrative or judicial action, any person who, in good faith, has made a complete and accurate request for an exemption, and relied upon the determination, will not be cited for violations which occurred prior to the date of the reversal.

450. Termination of Jurisdiction.

451. The Division may terminate its jurisdiction under the regulatory program over the reclaimed site of a completed coal mining and reclamation operation, or increment thereof, when:

451.100. The Division determines in writing that under the initial program all requirements imposed under the MC rules have been successfully completed; or

451.200. The Division determines in writing that under the permanent program all requirements imposed under the applicable regulatory program have been successfully completed or, where a performance bond was required, the Division has made a final decision in accordance with the State program to release the performance bond fully.

452. Following a termination under R645-100-451, the Division will reassert jurisdiction under the regulatory program over a site if it is demonstrated that the bond release or written determination referred to under R645-100-451 was based upon fraud, collusion, or misrepresentation of a material fact.

R645-100-500. Petition to Initiate Rulemaking.

Persons other than the Division or Board may petition to initiate rulemaking pursuant to the R641 Rules and the Utah Administrative Rulemaking Act, U.C.A. 63G-3-101, et seq.

R645-100-600. Notice of Citizen Suits.

A person who intends to initiate a civil action in his or her own behalf under 40-10-21 of the Act will give notice of intent to do so in accordance with R645-100-600.

610. Notice will be given by certified mail to the Director, if a complaint involves or relates to Utah.

620. Notice will be given by certified mail to the alleged violator, if the complaint alleges a violation of the Act or any rule, order, or permit issued under the Act.

630. Service of notice under R645-100-600 is complete upon mailing to the last known address of the person being notified.

640. A person giving notice regarding an alleged violation will state, to the extent known:

641. Sufficient information to identify the provision of the Act, rule, order, or permit allegedly violated;

642. The act or omission alleged to constitute a violation;

643. The name, address, and telephone number of the person or persons responsible for the alleged violation;

644. The date, time, and location of the alleged violation;

645. The name, address, and telephone number of the person giving notice; and

646. The name, address, and telephone number of legal counsel, if any, of the person giving notice.

650. A person giving notice of an alleged failure by the Director to perform a mandatory act or duty under the Act will state, to the extent known:

651. The provision of the Act containing the mandatory act or duty allegedly not performed;

652. Sufficient information to identify the omission alleged to constitute the failure to perform a mandatory act or duty under the Act;

653. The name, address, and telephone number of the person giving notice; and

654. The name, address, and telephone number of legal counsel, if any, of the person giving notice.

R645-100-700. Availability of Records.

710. Records required by the Act to be made available locally to the public will be retained at the Division office closest to the area involved.

720. Other nonconfidential records or documents in the possession of the Division may be requested from the Division.

730. Information received which is required to be held confidential by the terms of the Act will not be available for public inspection.

R645-100-800. Computation of Time.

810. Except as otherwise provided, computation of time under the R645 Rules is based on calendar days.

820. In computing any period of prescribed time, the day on which the designated period of time begins is not included. The last day of the period is included unless it is a Saturday, Sunday, or a legal holiday on which the Division is not open for business, in which event the period runs until the end of the next day which is not Saturday, Sunday, or a legal holiday.

830. Intermediate Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays are excluded from the computation when the period or prescribed time is seven days or less.

KEY

reclamation, coal mines

Date of Enactment or Last Substantive Amendment

May 23, 2012

Notice of Continuation

September 6, 2016

Authorizing, Implemented, or Interpreted Law

40-10-1 et seq.


Additional Information

Contact

For questions regarding the content or application of rules under Title R645, please contact the promulgating agency (Natural Resources; Oil, Gas and Mining; Coal). A list of agencies with links to their homepages is available at http://www.utah.gov/government/agencylist.html or from http://www.rules.utah.gov/contact/agencycontacts.htm.