Utah Administrative Code

The Utah Administrative Code is the body of all effective administrative rules as compiled and organized by the Division of Administrative Rules (see Subsection 63G-3-102(5); see also Sections 63G-3-701 and 702).

NOTE: For a list of rules that have been made effective since April 1, 2019, please see the codification segue page.

NOTE TO RULEFILING AGENCIES: Use the RTF version for submitting rule changes.


R865. Tax Commission, Auditing.

Rule R865-6F. Franchise Tax.

As in effect on April 1, 2019

Table of Contents

R865-6F-1. Corporation Franchise Privilege - Right to Do Business - Nature of Liability and How Terminated Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 16-10a-1501 through 16-10a-1533.

A. The Utah franchise tax is imposed upon corporations qualified or incorporated under the laws of Utah, whether or not they do business therein, and also upon corporations doing business in Utah, whether or not they are qualified or incorporated under the laws of Utah.

1. An unqualified foreign corporation doing business in this state is liable for Utah corporation franchise tax in the same amount as if it had duly applied for and received a certificate of authority to transact business in this state pursuant to Section 16-10a-1501.

2. An unqualified foreign corporation deriving income from this state, but not doing business in this state within the contemplation of the Utah corporation franchise tax law is subject to the Utah corporation income tax on income derived from this state under the provisions of Sections 59-7-201 to 59-7-207.

B. If a corporation received its corporate authority to do business in Utah prior to January 1, 1973, and is a member of an affiliated group filing a combined report under Section 59-7-402 or 59-7-403, and legally terminates its corporate authority, it must include its activity during the final year in the combined report of the group. The tax is imposed upon the income of the group rather than the income of the individual corporations.

C. A corporation that was incorporated, qualified, or that reinstated its corporate authority to do business in Utah after January 1, 1973 must file a corporation franchise tax return and pay the tax due with the return for the year in which it legally terminates its right to do business in this state. The Tax Commission shall not issue a tax clearance certificate until the final return has been filed and the amounts due for the final year are paid.

D. For Utah corporation franchise tax purposes, a foreign corporation terminates its corporate existence or the privileges for which the franchise tax is levied (unless it continues to do business) on the date on which:

1. a certificate of withdrawal is issued under the provisions of Section 16-10a-1520;

2. its corporate existence is legally terminated in its home state, provided authoritative evidence of that termination is filed;

3. a certificate of revocation of its authority to transact business in this state is issued under the provisions of Sections 16-10a-1530 and 16-10a-1531; or

4. the corporate powers, rights, and privileges are forfeited under the provisions of Section 59-7-534.

E. For Utah corporation franchise tax purposes, a corporation that is incorporated under the laws of this state terminates its corporate existence or the privilege of exercising its corporate franchise for which the franchise tax is levied on the date on which:

1. a certificate of dissolution is issued pursuant to a voluntary dissolution under the provisions of Section 16-10a-1401 or Sections 16-10a-1402 through 16-10a-1403;

2. a decree of dissolution is entered by the court pursuant to the provisions of Sections 16-10a-1430 through 16-10a-1433;

3. a certificate of merger or of consolidation (which effects the termination of the separate corporate existence of the Utah corporation) is issued pursuant to the provisions of Sections 16-10a-1101 through 16-10a-1107; or

4. the corporate rights and privileges are suspended under the provisions of Section 59-7-534.

F. If the corporation continues to do business in this state subsequent to any of the above dates, it is liable for franchise tax, even though doing business is not authorized, or may even be prohibited, by law. A corporation cannot avoid the franchise tax by doing business without authority which, if legally done, would subject the corporation to the tax.

R865-6F-2. Establishment of Taxable Year and Filing the First Return Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-7-501 and 59-7-505.

A. The period for which a corporation must file its returns for corporation franchise tax purposes is the same period under which its income is computed pursuant to Section 59-7-501.

B. The first return may cover a period of less than 12-calendar months, but may not exceed 12-calendar months. The period must end on the last day of a calendar month, except that the Tax Commission will accept returns being made using the 52-53 week method of reporting under Section 441(f), Internal Revenue Code.

C. If a corporation elects for federal purposes to end its filing period on a date that does not fall on the last day of a calendar month, the filing period for the purposes of effective dates of Utah laws ends on the last day of the month nearest to the federal year end. The Utah net income is computed based on the filing period for federal purposes, notwithstanding the Utah filing period ends on the last day of the month.

D. Except as provided in Section 59-7-505(8)(a), in the case of a domestic corporation, the first return period begins with the date of incorporation. Activity prior to date of incorporation must be reported on individual income or partnership returns or of such other entity as may be appropriate.

E. Except as provided in Section 59-7-505(8)(a), in the case of a foreign corporation, the first return period begins with the date the corporation is qualified to do business in Utah under Title 16, Chapter 10a, Part 15, or the date business within the state is commenced, whichever is the earlier.

R865-6F-6. Application of Corporation Franchise or Income Tax Acts to Qualified Corporations and to Nonqualified Foreign Corporations Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Section 59-7-104.

(1) Definitions.

(a) "Ancillary activities" means those activities that serve no independent business function for the seller apart from their connection to the solicitation of orders.

(b) "De minimis activities" means those activities that, when taken together, establish only a trivial connection with the taxing state. An activity conducted within Utah on a regular or systematic basis or pursuant to a company policy, whether or not in writing, shall not normally be considered trivial.

(c) "In-home office" means an office or place of business located within the residence of the employee or representative of a company that satisfies the following conditions:

(i) The office may not be publicly attributed to the company, or to the employee or representative of the company in an employee or representative capacity.

(ii) The use of the office shall be limited to soliciting and receiving orders from customers; transmitting orders outside the state for acceptance or rejection by the company; or for other activities that are protected under Public Law 86-272, 15 U.S.C. 381-384 (hereafter P.L. 86-272) and this rule.

(iii) Neither the company nor the employee or representative shall maintain a telephone listing or other public listing for the company within the state, nor use advertising or business literature indicating that the company or its employee or representative can be contacted at a specific address within the state. However, the normal distribution and use of business cards and stationery identifying the employee's or representative's name, address, telephone, and fax numbers and affiliation with the company shall not, by itself, be considered as advertising or otherwise publicly attributing an office to the company or its employee or representative.

(d) "Solicitation" means:

(i) speech or conduct that explicitly or implicitly invites an order; and

(ii) activities that neither explicitly nor implicitly invite an order, but are entirely ancillary to requests for an order.

(2) Every corporation doing business in Utah whether qualified or not, and every corporation incorporated or qualified in Utah whether or not doing business therein is subject to the Utah corporation franchise tax, unless exempted under the provisions of Section 59-7-102. If liability for the tax exists, the tax must be computed under the provisions of Section 59-7-104, at the rate provided by statute, but in no case shall the tax be less than the minimum tax prescribed.

(3) Foreign corporations not qualified in Utah which ship goods to customers in this state from points outside this state, pursuant to orders solicited but not accepted by agents or employees in this state, and which are not doing business in Utah are not taxable under the Utah Corporation Franchise Tax Act if:

(a) they maintain no office nor stocks of goods in Utah, and

(b) they engage in no other activities in Utah.

(4) Foreign corporations not qualified in Utah that make deliveries from stocks of goods located in this state are doing business in this state and are taxable under the Corporation Franchise Tax Act, even though they have no office or regular place of business in this state.

(5) Foreign corporations not qualified in Utah are subject to the franchise tax if performing the necessary duties to fulfill contracts or subcontracts in Utah, whether through their own employees or by furnishing of supervisory personnel.

(6) Corporations that own real property within this state and rent or lease such properties to others are subject to the franchise tax whether or not qualified under the laws of this state. This also applies to corporations deriving royalty, lease, or rental income from properties located within this state, whether or not such properties are owned by the corporation.

(7) Foreign corporations not qualified in Utah are subject to the franchise or income tax if they derive income from revenue-producing properties located in Utah or moving through Utah or from services performed by personnel in this state. This includes, but is not limited to, freight and transportation operations, sales of real property having a Utah situs, leasing or sales of franchises, sporting or entertaining events, etc.

(8) Corporations that participate in joint ventures or working and operating agreements which are performed in this state are subject to the franchise tax whether qualified or not.

(9) Foreign corporations qualified in Utah are subject to the franchise tax even though engaged solely in interstate commerce.

(10) P.L. 86-272 restricts a state from imposing a net income tax on income derived within its borders from interstate commerce if the only business activity of the company within the state consists of the solicitation of orders for sales of tangible personal property, which orders are sent outside the state for acceptance or rejection, and, if accepted, are filled by shipment or delivery from a point outside the state. The term "net income tax" includes a franchise tax measured by net income. If any sales of tangible personal property are made from Utah into a state which is precluded by P.L. 86-272 from taxing the income of the seller, such sales remain subject to throwback to Utah pursuant to Subsection 59-7-318(2). Similarly, a sale into Utah from another state would not subject a corporation to the Utah tax if the corporation's activities do not exceed those allowed under P.L. 86-272.

(a) Only the solicitation to sell personal property is afforded immunity under P.L. 86-272; therefore, the leasing, renting licensing or other disposition of tangible personal property, or transactions involving intangibles such as franchises, patents, copyrights, trade marks, service marks and the like, or any other type of property are not protected activities under P. L. 86-272. The sale or delivery and the solicitation for the sale or delivery of any type of service that is not either (1) ancillary to solicitation, or (2) otherwise set forth as a protected activity below is also not protected under P.L. 86-272 or this rule.

(b) For the in-state activity to be a protected activity under P.L. 86-272, it must be limited solely to solicitation, except for de minimis activities and activities conducted by independent contractors as described below.

(11) The following in-state activities, assuming they are not of a de minimis level, will constitute doing business in Utah under P.L. 86-272 and will subject the corporation to the Utah corporation franchise tax:

(a) making repairs or providing maintenance or service to the property sold or to be sold;

(b) collecting current or delinquent accounts, whether directly or by third parties, through assignment or otherwise;

(c) investigating credit worthiness;

(d) installation or supervision of installation at or after shipment or delivery;

(e) conducting training courses, seminars, or lectures for personnel other than personnel involved only in solicitation;

(f) providing any kind of technical assistance or service including engineering assistance or design service, when one of the purposes thereof is other than the facilitation of the solicitation of orders;

(g) investigating, handling, or otherwise assisting in resolving customer complaints, other than mediating direct customer complaints when the sole purpose of such mediation is to ingratiate the sales personnel with the customer;

(h) approving or accepting orders;

(i) repossessing property;

(j) securing deposits on sales;

(k) picking up or replacing damaged or returned property;

(l) hiring, training, or supervising personnel, other than personnel involved only in solicitation;

(m) using agency stock checks or any other instrument or process by which sales are made within this state by sales personnel;

(n) maintaining a sample or display room in excess of two weeks (14 days) at any one location within the state during the tax year;

(o) carrying samples for sale, exchange or distribution in any manner for consideration or other value;

(p) owning, leasing, using, or maintaining any of the following facilities or property in-state:

(i) repair shop;

(ii) parts department;

(iii) any kind of office other than an in-home office;

(iv) warehouse;

(v) meeting place for directors, officers, or employees;

(vi) stock of goods other than samples for sales personnel or that are used entirely ancillary to solicitation;

(vii) telephone answering service that is publicly attributed to the company or to employees or agents of the company in their representative status;

(viii) mobile stores, i.e., vehicles with drivers who are sales personnel making sales from the vehicles;

(ix) real property or fixtures to real property of any kind;

(q) consigning stocks of goods or other tangible personal property to any person, including an independent contractor, for sale;

(r) maintaining, by either an in-state or an out-of-state resident employee, an office or place of business (in-home or otherwise) of any kind other than an in-home office;

(i) the maintenance of any office or other place of business in this state that does not strictly qualify as an in-home office under this subsection shall, by itself cause the loss of protection under this rule;

(ii) for purposes of this subsection it is not relevant whether the company pays directly, indirectly, or not at all for the cost of maintaining the in-home office;

(s) entering into franchising of licensing agreements; selling or otherwise disposing of franchises and licenses; or selling or otherwise transferring tangible personal property pursuant to such franchise or license by the franchisor or licensor to its franchisee or licensee within the state;

(t) conducting any activity not listed as a protected activity below which is not entirely ancillary to requests for orders, even if such activity helps to increase purchases.

(12) The following in-state activities will not cause the loss of protection for otherwise protected sales;

(a) soliciting orders for sales by any type of advertising;

(b) soliciting of orders by an in-state resident employee or representative of the company, so long as such person does not maintain or use any office or other place of business in the state other than an in-home office;

(c) carrying samples and promotional materials only for display or distribution without charge or other consideration;

(d) furnishing and setting up display racks and advising customers on the display of the company's products without charge or other consideration;

(e) providing automobiles to sales personnel for their use in conducting protected activities;

(f) passing orders, inquiries and complaints on to the home office;

(g) missionary sales activities, i.e. the solicitation of indirect customers for the company's goods. For example, a manufacturer's solicitation of retailers to buy the manufacturer's goods from the manufacturer's wholesale customers would be protected if such solicitation activities are otherwise immune;

(h) coordinating shipment or delivery without payment or other consideration and providing information relating thereto either prior or subsequent to the placement of an order;

(i) checking of customer's inventories without a charge therefore if performed for reorder, but not for other purposes such as a quality control;

(j) maintaining a sample or display room for two weeks (14 days) or less at any one location within the state during the tax year;

(k) recruiting, training or evaluating sales personnel, including occasionally using homes, hotels or similar places for meetings with sales personnel;

(l) mediating direct customer complaints when the purpose thereof is solely for ingratiating the sales personnel with the customer and facilitating requests for orders;

(m) owning, leasing, using or maintaining personal property for use in the employee or representative's in-home office or automobile that is solely limited to the conducting of protected activities. Therefore, the use of personal property such as a cellular telephone, facsimile machine, duplicating equipment, personal computer and computer software that is limited to the carrying on of protected solicitation and activity entirely ancillary to such solicitation or permitted by the provisions of this rule shall not, by itself, remove the protection of P.L. 86-272.

(13) P.L. 86-272 provides protection to certain in-state activities if conducted by an independent contractor that would not be afforded if performed by the company or its employees or other representatives.

(a) Independent contractors may engage in the following limited activities in the state without the company's loss of immunity;

(i) soliciting sales;

(ii) making sales;

(iii) maintaining an office.

(b) Sales representatives who represent a single principal are not considered to be independent contractors and are subject to the same limitations as those provided under P.L. 86-272 and this rule.

(c) Maintenance of stock of goods in the state by the independent contractor under consignment or any other type of arrangement with the company, except for purposes of display and solicitation, shall remove the protection.

(14) The Tax Commission will apply the provisions of P.L. 86-272 and of this rule to business activities conducted in foreign commerce. Therefore, whether business activities are conducted by (i) a foreign or domestic company selling tangible personal property into a county outside of the United States from a point within this state or by (ii) either company selling such property into this state from a point outside of the United States, the principles under this rule apply equally to determine whether the sales transactions are protected and the company immune from taxation in either this state or in the foreign county, as the case might be, and whether, if applicable, the throwback provisions of Subsection 59-7-318(2) will apply.

(15) The protection afforded by P.L. 86-272 and the provisions of this rule do not apply to any corporation that is incorporated or domiciled in this state.

(16) A company that registers or otherwise formally qualifies to do business within this state does not, by that fact alone, lose its protection under P.L. 86-272. Where, separate from or ancillary to such registration or qualification, the company receives and seeks to use or protect any additional benefit or protection from this state through activity not otherwise protected under P.L. 86-272 or this rule, such protection shall be removed.

(17) The protection afforded under P.L. 86-272 and the provisions of this rule shall be determined on a year by year tax basis. Therefore, if at any time during a tax year the company conducts activities that are not protected under P.L. 86-272 or this rule, no sales in this state or income earned by the company attributed to this state during any part of said tax year shall be protected from taxation for purposes of the corporate franchise tax.

R865-6F-8. Allocation and Apportionment of Net Income (Uniform Division of Income for Tax Purposes Act) Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-7-302 through 59-7-321.

(1) Definitions.

(a) "Allocation" means the assignment of nonbusiness income to a particular state.

(b) "Apportionment" means the division of business income between states by the use of a formula containing apportionment factors.

(c) "Base of operations" means the place of more or less permanent nature from which the employee starts work and to which the employee customarily returns in order to receive instructions from the taxpayer or communications from customers or other persons, or to replenish stock or other materials, repair equipment, or perform any other function necessary to the exercise of his trade or profession at some other point or points.

(d) "Business activity" refers to the transactions and activities occurring in the regular course of a particular trade or business of a taxpayer, or to the acquisition, management, and disposition of property that constitute integral parts of the taxpayer's regular trade or business operations.

(e) "Business income" means income of any type or class, and from any activity, that meets the relationship described in Subsection (2)(b), the transactional test, or Subsection (2)(c), the functional test. The classification of income by the labels occasionally used, such as manufacturing income, compensation for services, sales income, interest, dividends, rents, royalties, gains, operating income, and nonoperating income is of no aid in determining whether income is business or nonbusiness income.

(f) "Compensation" means wages, salaries, commissions, and any other form of remuneration paid to employees for personal services.

(g) "Employee" means an:

(i) officer of a corporation; or

(ii) individual who, under the usual common law rules applicable in determining the employer-employee relationship, has the status of an employee.

(h) "Gross receipts" are the gross amounts realized (the sum of money and the fair market value of other property or services received) on the sale or exchange of property, the performance of services, or the use of property or capital (including rents, royalties, interest and dividends) in a transaction that produces business income, in which the income or loss is recognized (or would be recognized if the transaction were in the United States) under the Internal Revenue Code. Amounts realized on the sale or exchange or property are not reduced for the cost of goods sold or the basis of property sold.

(i) Gross receipts, even if business income, do not include such items as, for example:

(A) repayment, maturity, or redemption of the principal of a loan, bond, or mutual fund or certificate of deposit or similar marketable instrument;

(B) the principal amount received under a repurchase agreement or other transaction properly characterized as a loan;

(C) proceeds from issuance of the taxpayer's own stock or from sale of treasury stock;

(D) damages and other amounts received as the result of litigation;

(E) property acquired by an agent on behalf of another;

(F) tax refunds and other tax benefit recoveries;

(G) pension reversions;

(H) contributions to capital (except for sales of securities by securities dealers);

(I) income from forgiveness of indebtedness; or

(J) amounts realized from exchanges of inventory that are not recognized by the Internal Revenue Code.

(ii) Exclusion of an item from the definition of "gross receipts" is not determinative of its character as business or nonbusiness income. Nothing in this definition shall be construed to modify, impair or supersede any provision of Subsection (11).

(i) "Nonbusiness income" means all income other than business income.

(j) "Place from which the service is directed or controlled" means the place from which the power to direct or control is exercised by the taxpayer.

(k) "Taxpayer" means a corporation as defined in Section 59-7-101.

(l) "To contribute materially" includes being used operationally in the taxpayer's trade or business. Whether property contributes materially is not determined by reference to the property's value or percentage of use. If an item of property contributes materially to the taxpayer's trade or business, the attributes, rights, or components of that property are also operationally used in that business. However, property that is held for mere financial betterment is not operationally used in the taxpayer's trade or business.

(m) "Trade or business" means the unitary business of the taxpayer, part of which is conducted within Utah.

(2) Business and Nonbusiness Income.

(a) Apportionment and Allocation. Section 59-7-303 requires that every item of income be classified as either business income or nonbusiness income. Income for purposes of classification as business or nonbusiness includes gains and losses. Business income is apportioned among jurisdictions by use of a formula. Nonbusiness income is specifically assigned or allocated to one or more specific jurisdictions pursuant to express rules. An item of income is classified as business income if it falls within the definition of business income. An item of income is nonbusiness income only if it does not meet the definitional requirements for being classified as business income.

(b) Transactional Test. Business income includes income arising from transactions and activity in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business.

(i) If the transaction or activity is in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business, part of which trade or business is conducted within the state, the resulting income of the transaction or activity is business income for Utah purposes. Income may be business income even though the actual transaction or activity that gives rise to the income does not occur in this state.

(ii) For a transaction or activity to be in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business, the transaction or activity need not be one that frequently occurs in the trade or business. Most, but not all, frequently occurring transactions or activities will be in the regular course of that trade or business and will, therefore, satisfy the transactional test. It is sufficient to classify a transaction or activity as being in the regular course of a trade or business if it is reasonable to conclude transactions of that type are customary in the kind of trade or business being conducted, or are within the scope of what that kind of trade or business does. However, even if a taxpayer frequently or customarily engages in investment activities, if those activities are for the taxpayer's mere financial betterment rather than for the operations of the trade or business, those activities do not satisfy the transactional test. The transactional test includes income from sales of inventory, property held for sale to customers, and services commonly sold by the trade or business. The transactional test also includes income from the sale of property used in the production of business income of a kind that is sold and replaced with some regularity, even if replaced less frequently than once a year.

(c) Functional Test. Business income also includes income from tangible and intangible property if the acquisition, management, and disposition of the property constitute integral parts of the taxpayer's regular trade or business operations.

(i) The following definitions apply to this Subsection (2)(c).

(A) "Acquisition" means the act of obtaining an interest in property.

(B) "Disposition" means the act, or the power, of relinquishing or transferring an interest in or control over property to another, either in whole or in part.

(C) "Integral part" means property that constitutes a part of the composite whole of the trade or business, each part of which gives value to every other part, in a manner that materially contributes to the production of business income.

(D) "Management" means the oversight, direction, or control, whether directly or by delegation, of the property for the use or benefit of the trade or business.

(E) "Property" includes an interest in, control over, or use of property, whether the interest is held directly, beneficially, by contract, or otherwise, that materially contributes to the production of business income.

(ii) Under the functional test, business income need not be derived from transactions or activities that are in the regular course of the taxpayer's own particular trade or business. It is sufficient, if the property from which the income is derived is or was an integral, functional, or operative component used in the taxpayer's trade or business operations, or otherwise materially contributed to the production of business income of the trade or business, part of which trade or business is or was conducted within the state. Property that has been converted to nonbusiness use through the passage of a sufficiently lengthy period of time, generally five years, or that has been removed as an operational asset and is instead held by the taxpayer's trade or business exclusively for investment purposes, has lost its character as a business asset and is not subject to this subsection. Property that was an integral part of the trade or business is not considered converted to investment purposes merely because it is placed for sale.

(iii) Income that is derived from isolated sales, leases, assignments, licenses, and other infrequently occurring dispositions, transfers, or transactions involving property, including transactions made in liquidation or the winding-up of business, is business income if the property is or was used in the taxpayer's trade or business operations.

(A) Property that has been converted to nonbusiness use has lost its character as a business asset and is not subject to Subsection (2)(c)(iii).

(B) Income from the licensing of an intangible asset, such as a patent, copyright, trademark, service mark, know-how, trade secrets, or the like, that was developed or acquired for use by the taxpayer in its trade or business operations, constitutes business income whether or not the licensing itself constituted the operation of a trade or business, and whether or not the taxpayer remains in the same trade or business from or for which the intangible asset was developed or acquired.

(iv) Under the functional test, income from intangible property is business income when the intangible property serves an operational function as opposed to solely an investment function. The relevant inquiry focuses on whether the property is or was held in furtherance of the taxpayer's trade or business, that is, on the objective characteristics of the intangible property's use or acquisition and its relation to the taxpayer and the taxpayer's activities. The functional test is not satisfied where the holding of the property is limited to solely an investment function as is the case where the holding of the property is limited to mere financial betterment of the taxpayer in general.

(v) If the property is or was held in furtherance of the taxpayer's trade or business beyond mere financial betterment, income from that property may be business income even though the actual transaction or activity involving the property that gives rise to the income does not occur in this state.

(vi) If with respect to an item of property a taxpayer takes a deduction from business income that is apportioned to this state, or includes the original cost in the property factor, it is presumed that the item of property is or was integral to the taxpayer's trade or business operations. No presumption arises from the absence of any of these actions.

(vii) Application of the functional test is generally unaffected by the form of the property, whether tangible or intangible, real or personal. Income arising from an intangible interest, for example, corporate stock or other intangible interest in a business or a group of assets, is business income when the intangible itself or the property underlying or associated with the intangible is or was an integral, functional, or operative component of the taxpayer's trade or business operations.

(A) Property that has been converted to nonbusiness use has lost its character as a business asset and is not subject to this Subsection (2)(c)(vii).

(B) While apportionment of income derived from transactions involving intangible property as business income may be supported by a finding that the issuer of the intangible property and the taxpayer are engaged in the same trade or business, that is, the same unitary business, establishment of that relationship is not the exclusive basis for concluding that the income is subject to apportionment.

(C) It is sufficient to support the finding of apportionable income if the holding of the intangible interest served an operational rather than an investment function of mere financial betterment.

(d) Relationship of Transactional Test and Functional Tests to the United States Constitution.

(i) The due process clause and the commerce clause of the United States Constitution restrict states from apportioning income as business income that has no rational relationship with the taxing state. The protection against extra-territorial state taxation afforded by these clauses is often described as the unitary business principle. The unitary business principle requires apportionable income to be derived from the same unitary business that is being conducted as least in part in the state.

(ii) The unitary business conducted in this state includes both a unitary business that the taxpayer alone may be conducting and a unitary business the taxpayer may conduct with any other person. Satisfaction of either the transactional test or the functional test complies with the unitary business principle, because each test requires that the transaction or activity, in the case of the transactional test, or the property, in the case of the functional test, to be tied to the same trade or business that is conducted within the state. Determination of the scope of the unitary business conducted in the state is without regard to the extent to which this state requires or permits combined reporting.

(e) Business and Nonbusiness Income Application of Definitions.

(i) Rents From Real and Tangible Personal Property. Rental income from real and tangible property is business income if the property with respect to which the rental income was received is or was used in the taxpayer's trade or business and therefore is includable in the property factor under Subsection (8)(a)(i). Property that has been converted to nonbusiness use has lost its character as a business asset and is not subject to this subsection.

(ii) Gains or Losses From Sales of Assets. Gain or loss from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of real property or of tangible or intangible personal property constitutes business income if the property while owned by the taxpayer was used in, or was otherwise included in the property factor of the taxpayer's trade or business. However, if the property was utilized for the production of nonbusiness income or it was previously included in the property factor and later removed from the property factor before its sale, exchange, or other disposition, the gain or loss constitutes nonbusiness income. See Subsection (8)(a)(ii).

(iii) Interest. Interest income is business income where the intangible with respect to which the interest was received arises out of or was created in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business operations, or where the purpose for acquiring and holding the intangible is an integral, functional, or operative component of the taxpayer's trade or business operations, or otherwise materially contributes to the production of business income of the trade or business operations.

(iv) Dividends. Dividends are business income where the stock with respect to which the dividends were received arose out of or was acquired in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business operations or where the acquiring and holding of the stock is an integral, functional, or operative component of the taxpayer's trade or business operations, or otherwise materially contributes to the production of business income of the trade or business operations.

(v) Patent and Copyright Royalties. Patent and copyright royalties are business income where the patent or copyright with respect to which the royalties were received arose out of or was created in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business operations or where the acquiring and holding of the patent or copyright is an integral, functional, or operational component of the taxpayer's trade or business operations, or otherwise materially contributes to the production of business income of the trade or business operations.

(vi) Proration of Deductions. In most cases, an allowable deduction of a taxpayer will be applicable only to the business income arising from a particular trade or business or to a particular item of nonbusiness income. In some cases, an allowable deduction may be applicable to the business incomes of more than one trade or business or several items of nonbusiness income. In those cases, the deduction shall be prorated among those trades or businesses and those items of nonbusiness income in a manner that fairly distributes the deduction among the classes of income to which it is applicable.

(f)(i) A schedule must be submitted with the return showing the:

(A) gross income from each class of income being allocated;

(B) amount of each class of applicable expenses, together with explanation or computations showing how amounts were arrived at;

(C) total amount of the applicable expenses for each income class; and

(D) net income of each income class.

(ii) The schedule shall indicate items of income and expenses allocated both to the state and outside the state.

(g) Year to Year Consistency. In filing returns with the state, if the taxpayer departs from or modifies the manner of prorating any deduction used in returns for prior years in a material way, the taxpayer shall disclose in the return for the current year the nature and extent of the modification.

(h) State to State Consistency. If the returns or reports filed by a taxpayer with all states to which the taxpayer reports under the Uniform Division of Income for Tax Purposes Act are not uniform in the application or proration of any deduction, the taxpayer shall disclose in its return to this state the nature and extent of any material variance.

(3) Unitary Business.

(a) Unitary Business Principle.

(i) The Concept of a Unitary Business. A unitary business is a single economic enterprise that is made up of either separate parts of a single business entity or a group of business entities related through common ownership that are sufficiently interdependent, integrated and interrelated through their activities so as to provide a synergy and mutual benefit that produces a sharing or exchange of value among them and a significant flow of value to the separate parts. This flow of value to a business entity located in this state that comes from being part of a unitary business conducted both within and without the state is what provides the constitutional due process definite link and minimum connection necessary for the state to apportion business income of the unitary business, even if that income arises in part from activities conducted outside the state. The business income of the unitary business is then apportioned to this state using an apportionment percentage provided by Section 59-7-311. This sharing or exchange of value may also be described as requiring that the operation of one part of the business be dependent upon, or contribute to, the operation of another part of the business. Phrased in the disjunctive, the foregoing means that if the activities of one business either contribute to the activities of another business or are dependent upon the activities of another business, those businesses are part of a unitary business.

(ii) Constitutional Requirement for a Unitary Business. The sharing or exchange of value described in Subsection (3)(a)(i) that defines the scope of a unitary business requires more than the mere flow of funds arising out of a passive investment or from the financial strength contributed by a distinct business undertaking that has no operational relationship to the unitary business. In this state, the unitary business principle shall be applied to the fullest extent allowed by the United States Constitution. The unitary business principle shall not be applied to result in the combination of business activities or entities under circumstances where, if it were adverse to the taxpayer, the combination of those activities or entities would not be allowed by the United States Constitution.

(iii) Separate Trades or Businesses Conducted Within a Single Entity. A single entity may have more than one unitary business. In those cases, it is necessary to determine the business, or apportionable, income attributable to each separate unitary business as well as its nonbusiness income, which is specifically allocated. The business income of each unitary business is then apportioned by a formula that takes into consideration the in-state and out-of-state factors that relate to the respective unitary business whose income is being apportioned.

(iv) Unitary Business Unaffected by Formal Business Organization. A unitary business may exist within a single business entity or among a group of business entities related through common ownership, as defined in Section 59-7-101.

(b) Determination of a Unitary Business.

(i) A unitary business is characterized by significant flows of value evidenced by factors such as those described in Mobil Oil Corp. v. Vermont, 445 US 425 (1980): functional integration, centralization of management, and economies of scale. These factors provide evidence of whether the business activities operate as an integrated whole or exhibit substantial mutual interdependence. Facts suggesting the presence of the factors mentioned above should be analyzed in combination for their cumulative effect and not in isolation. A particular characteristic of a business operation may be suggestive of one or more of the factors mentioned above.

(ii) Description and Illustration of Functional Integration, Centralization of Management, and Economies of Scale.

(A) Functional Integration. Functional integration refers to transfers between, or pooling among, business activities that significantly affect the operation of the business activities. Functional integration includes transfers or pooling with respect to the unitary business's products or services, technical information, marketing information, distribution systems, purchasing, and intangibles such as patents, trademarks, service marks, copyrights, trade secrets, know-how, formulas, and processes. There is no specific type of functional integration that must be present. The following is a list of examples of business operations that support the finding of functional integration. The order of the list does not establish a hierarchy of importance.

(I) Sales, Exchanges, or Transfers. Sales, exchanges, or transfers (collectively "sales") of products, services, and intangibles between business activities provide evidence of functional integration. The significance of the intercompany sales to the finding of functional integration will be affected by the character of what is sold and the percentage of total sales or purchases represented by the intercompany sales. For example, sales among business entities that are part of a vertically integrated unitary business are indicative of functional integration. Functional integration is not negated by the use of a readily determinable market price to affect the intercompany sales, because those sales can represent an assured market for the seller or an assured source of supply for the purchaser.

(II) Common Marketing. The sharing of common marketing features among business entities is an indication of functional integration when the marketing results in significant mutual advantage. Common marketing exists when a substantial portion of the business entities' products, services, or intangibles are distributed or sold to a common customer, when the business entities use a common trade name or other common identification, or when the business entities seek to identify themselves to their customers as a member of the same enterprise. The use of a common advertising agency or a commonly owned or controlled in-house advertising office does not by itself establish common marketing that is suggestive of functional integration. That activity, however, is relevant to determining the existence of economies of scale and centralization of management.

(III) Transfer or Pooling of Technical Information or Intellectual Property. Transfers or pooling of technical information or intellectual property, such as patents, copyrights, trademarks and service marks, trade secrets, processes or formulas, know-how, research, or development provide evidence of functional integration when the matter transferred is significant to the businesses' operations.

(IV) Common Distribution System. Use of a common distribution system by the business entities, under which inventory control and accounting, storage, trafficking, or transportation are controlled through a common network provides evidence of functional integration.

(V) Common Purchasing. Common purchasing of substantial quantities of products, services, or intangibles from the same source by the business entities, particularly where the purchasing results in significant cost savings and is significant to each entity's operations or sales, provides evidence of functional integration.

(VI) Common or Intercompany Financing. Significant common or intercompany financing, including the guarantee by, or the pledging of the credit of, one or more business entities for the benefit of another business entity or entities provides evidence of functional integration, if the financing activity serves an operational purpose of both borrower and lender. Lending that serves an investment purpose of the lender does not necessarily provide evidence of functional integration.

(B) Centralization of Management. Centralization of management exists when directors, officers, and other management employees jointly participate in the management decisions that affect the respective business activities and that may also operate to the benefit of the entire economic enterprise. Centralization of management can exist whether the centralization is effected from a parent entity to a subsidiary entity, from a subsidiary entity to a parent entity, from one subsidiary entity to another, from one division within a single business entity to another division within a business entity, or from any combination of the foregoing. Centralization of management may exist even when day-to-day management responsibility and accountability has been decentralized, so long as the management has an ongoing operational role with respect to the business activities. An operational role may be effected through mandates, consensus building, or an overall operational strategy of the business, or any other mechanism that establishes joint management.

(I) Facts Providing Evidence of Centralization of Management. Evidence of centralization of management is provided when common officers participate in the decisions relating to the business operations of the different segments. Centralization of management may exist when management shares or applies knowledge and expertise among the parts of the business. Existence of common officers and directors, while relevant to a showing of centralization of management, does not alone provide evidence of centralization of management. Common officers are more likely to provide evidence of centralization of management than are common directors.

(II) Stewardship Distinguished. Centralized efforts to fulfill stewardship oversight are not evidence of centralization of management. Stewardship oversight consists of those activities that any owner would take to review the performance of or safeguard an investment. Stewardship oversight is distinguished from those activities that an owner may take to enhance value by integrating one or more significant operating aspects of one business activity with the other business activities of the owner. For example, implementing reporting requirements or mere approval of capital expenditures may evidence only stewardship oversight.

(C) Economies of Scale. Economies of scale refers to a relation among and between business activities resulting in a significant decrease in the average per unit cost of operational or administrative functions due to the increase in operational size. Economies of scale may exist from the inherent cost savings that arise from the presence of functional integration or centralization of management. The following are examples of business operations that support the finding of economies of scale. The order of the list does not establish a hierarchy of importance.

(I) Centralized Purchasing. Centralized purchasing designed to achieve savings due to the volume of purchases, the timing of purchases, or the interchangeability of purchased items among the parts of the business engaging in the purchasing provides evidence of economies of scale.

(II) Centralized Administrative Functions. The performance of traditional corporate administrative functions, such as legal services, payroll services, pension and other employee benefit administration, in common among the parts of the business may result in some degree of economies of scale. A business entity that secures savings in the performance of corporate administrative services due to its affiliation with other business entities that it would not otherwise reasonably be able to secure on its own because of its size, financial resources, or available market provides evidence of economies of scale.

(c) Indicators of a Unitary Business.

(i) Business activities that are in the same general line of business generally constitute a single unitary business, as for example, a multistate grocery chain.

(ii) Business activities that are part of different steps in a vertically structured business almost always constitute a single unitary business. For example, a business engaged in the exploration, development, extraction, and processing of a natural resource and the subsequent sale of a product based upon the extracted natural resource, is engaged in a single unitary business, regardless of the fact that the various steps in the process are operated substantially independently of each other with only general supervision from the business's executive offices.

(iii) Business activities that might otherwise be considered as part of more than one unitary business may constitute one unitary business when the factors outlined in Subsection (3)(b) are present. For example, some businesses conducting diverse lines of business may properly be considered as engaged in only one unitary business when the central executive officers are actively involved in the operations of the various business activities and there are centralized offices that perform for the business the normal matters a truly independent business would perform for itself, such as personnel, purchasing, advertising, or financing.

(4) Apportionment and Allocation.

(a)(i) If the business activity with respect to the trade or business of a taxpayer occurs both within and without this state, and if by reason of that business activity the taxpayer is taxable in another state, the portion of the net income (or net loss) arising from the trade or business derived from sources within this state shall be determined by apportionment in accordance with Sections 59-7-311 to 59-7-319.

(ii) For purposes of determining the fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to this state under Section 59-7-311:

(A) If a taxpayer makes an election to calculate its apportionment fraction under Subsection 59-7-311(2)(a) and one or more of the factors listed in Subsection 59-7-311(2)(a)(i) is missing, the fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to the state shall be determined by adding the factors present and dividing that sum by the number of factors present.

(B) If a taxpayer makes an election to double weight the sales factor under Subsection 59-7-311(2)(b) and one or more of the factors listed in Subsection 59-7-311(2)(b)(i) is missing, the fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to the state shall be determined by adding the factors as provided in subsection 59-7-311(2)(b)(i), and dividing that sum by the denominator indicated in Subsection 59-7-311(2)(b)(ii), reduced by the sum of one if the property factor is missing, one if the payroll factor is missing, and two if the sales factor is missing.

(C) For a taxable year that begins on or after January 1, 2011, but begins on or before December 31, 2011, in the case of a sales factor weighted taxpayer, if one or more of the factors listed in Subsection 59-7-311(3)(a)(i) is missing and if the sales factor is present, the fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to the state shall be determined by adding the factors as provided in Subsection 59-7-311(3)(a)(i), and dividing that sum by the denominator, indicated in Subsection 59-7-311(3)(a)(ii), reduced by the number of missing factors.

(D) For a taxable year that begins on or after January 1, 2012, but begins on or before December 31, 2012, in the case of a sales factor weighted taxpayer, if one or more of the factors listed in Subsection 59-7-311(3)(b)(i) is missing and if the sales factor is present, the fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to the state shall be determined by adding the factors as provided in Subsection 59-7-311(3)(b)(i), and dividing that sum by the denominator, indicated in Subsection 59-7-311(3)(b)(ii), reduced by the number of missing factors.

(b) Allocation. Any taxpayer subject to the taxing jurisdiction of this state shall allocate all of its nonbusiness income or loss within or without this state in accordance with Sections 59-7-306 to 59-7-310.

(5) Consistency and Uniformity in Reporting. In filing returns with this state, if the taxpayer departs from or modifies the manner in which income has been classified as business income or nonbusiness income in returns for prior years, the taxpayer shall disclose in the return for the current year the nature and extent of the modification. If the returns or reports filed by a taxpayer for all states to which the taxpayer reports under UDITPA are not uniform in the classification of income as business or nonbusiness income, the taxpayer shall disclose in its return to this state the nature and extent of the variance.

(6) Taxable in Another State.

(a) In General. Under Section 59-7-303 the taxpayer is subject to the allocation and apportionment provisions of UDITPA if it has income from business activity that is taxable both within and without this state. A taxpayer's income from business activity is taxable without this state if the taxpayer, by reason of business activity (i.e., the transactions and activity occurring in the regular course of the trade or business), is taxable in another state within the meaning of Section 59-7-305. A taxpayer is taxable within another state if it meets either one of two tests:

(i) if by reason of business activity in another state the taxpayer is subject to one of the types of taxes specified in Section 59-7-305(1), namely: a net income tax, a franchise tax measured by net income, a franchise tax for the privilege of doing business, or a corporate stock tax; or

(ii) if by reason of business activity another state has jurisdiction to subject the taxpayer to a net income tax, regardless of whether the state imposes that tax on the taxpayer. A taxpayer is not taxable in another state with respect to the trade or business merely because the taxpayer conducts activities in that state pertaining to the production of nonbusiness income or business activities relating to a separate trade or business.

(b) When a Taxpayer Is Subject to a Tax Under Section 59-7-305. A taxpayer is subject to one of the taxes specified in Section 59-7-305(1) if it carries on business activity in a state and that state imposes such a tax thereon. Any taxpayer that asserts that it is subject to one of the taxes specified in Section 59-7-305(1) in another state shall furnish to the Tax Commission, upon its request, evidence to support that assertion. The Tax Commission may request that the evidence include proof that the taxpayer has filed the requisite tax return in the other state and has paid any taxes imposed under the law of the other state. The taxpayer's failure to produce that proof may be taken into account in determining whether the taxpayer is subject to one of the taxes specified in Section 59-7-305(1) in the other state. If the taxpayer voluntarily files and pays one or more taxes when not required to do so by the laws of that state or pays a minimal fee for qualification, organization, or for the privilege of doing business in that state, but

(i) does not actually engage in business activity in that state, or

(ii) does actually engage in some business activity, not sufficient for nexus, and the minimum tax bears no relation to the taxpayer's business activity within that state, the taxpayer is not subject to one of the taxes specified within the meaning of Section 59-7-305(1).

(c) When a State Has Jurisdiction to Subject a Taxpayer to a Net Income Tax. The second test, that of Section 59-7-305(2), applies if the taxpayer's business activity is sufficient to give the state jurisdiction to impose a net income tax by reason of business activity under the Constitution and statutes of the United States. Jurisdiction to tax is not present where the state is prohibited from imposing the tax by reason of the provisions of Public Law 86-272, 15 U. S. C. A. Sec. 381-385 (P.L. 86-272). In the case of any state as defined in Section 59-7-302, other than a state of the United States or political subdivision of a state, the determination of whether a state has jurisdiction to subject the taxpayer to a net income tax shall be made as though the jurisdictional standards applicable to a state of the United States applied in that state. If jurisdiction is otherwise present, the state is not considered as without jurisdiction by reason of the provisions of a treaty between that state and the United States.

(7) Apportionment Formula. All business income of the taxpayer shall be apportioned to this state by use of the apportionment formula set forth in Section 59-7-311. The elements of the apportionment formula are the property factor, see Subsection (8), the payroll factor, see Subsection (9), and the sales factor, see Subsection (10) of the trade or business of the taxpayer. For exceptions see Subsection (11).

(8) Property Factor.

(a) In General.

(i) The property factor of the apportionment formula shall include all real and tangible personal property owned or rented by the taxpayer and used during the tax period in the regular course of its trade or business. Real and tangible personal property includes land, buildings, machinery, stocks of goods, equipment, and other real and tangible personal property but does not include coin or currency.

(ii) Property used in connection with the production of nonbusiness income shall be excluded from the property factor. Property used both in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business and in the production of nonbusiness income shall be included in the factor only to the extent the property is used in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business. The method of determining the portion of the value to be included in the factor will depend upon the facts of each case.

(iii) The property factor shall reflect the average value of property includable in the factor. Refer to Subsection (8)(g).

(b) Property Used for the Production of Business Income. Property shall be included in the property factor if it is actually used or is available for or capable of being used during the tax period in the regular course of the trade or business of the taxpayer. Property held as reserves or standby facilities or property held as a reserve source of materials shall be included in the factor. For example, a plant temporarily idle or raw material reserves not currently being processed are includable in the factor. Property or equipment under construction during the tax period, except inventoriable goods in process, shall be excluded from the factor until the property is actually used in the regular course of the trade or business of the taxpayer. If the property is partially used in the regular course of the trade or business of the taxpayer while under construction, the value of the property to the extent used shall be included in the property factor. Property used in the regular course of the trade or business of the taxpayer shall remain in the property factor until its permanent withdrawal is established by an identifiable event such as its conversion to the production of nonbusiness income, its sale, or the lapse of an extended period of time, normally five years, during which the property is no longer held for use in the trade or business.

(c) Consistency in Reporting. In filing returns with this state, if the taxpayer departs from or modifies the manner of valuing property, or of excluding or including property in the property factor, used in returns for prior years, the taxpayer shall disclose in the return for the current year the nature and extent of the modification. If the returns or reports filed by the taxpayer with all states to which the taxpayer reports under UDITPA are not uniform in the valuation of property and in the exclusion or inclusion of property in the property factor, the taxpayer shall disclose in its return to this state the nature and extent of the variance.

(d) Property Factor Numerator. The numerator of the property factor shall include the average value of the real and tangible personal property owned or rented by the taxpayer and used in this state during the tax period in the regular course of the trade or business of the taxpayer. Property in transit between locations of the taxpayer to which it belongs shall be considered to be at the destination for purposes of the property factor. Property in transit between a buyer and seller that is included by a taxpayer in the denominator of its property factor in accordance with its regular accounting practices shall be included in the numerator according to the state of destination. The value of mobile or movable property such as construction equipment, trucks, or leased electronic equipment that are located within and without this state during the tax period shall be determined for purposes of the numerator of the factor on the basis of total time within the state during the tax period. An automobile assigned to a traveling employee shall be included in the numerator of the factor of the state to which the employee's compensation is assigned under the payroll factor or in the numerator of the state in which the automobile is licensed.

(e) Valuation of Owned Property.

(i) Property owned by the taxpayer shall be valued at its original cost. As a general rule original cost is deemed to be the basis of the property for state franchise or income tax purposes (prior to any adjustments) at the time of acquisition by the taxpayer and adjusted by subsequent capital additions or improvements thereto and partial disposition thereof, by reasons including sale, exchange, and abandonment. However, capitalized intangible drilling and development costs shall be included in the property factor whether or not they have been expensed for either federal or state tax purposes.

(ii) Inventory of stock of goods shall be included in the factor in accordance with the valuation method used for state tax purposes.

(iii) Property acquired by gift or inheritance shall be included in the factor at its basis for determining depreciation.

(f) Valuation of Rented Property.

(i) Property rented by the taxpayer is valued at eight times its net annual rental rate. The net annual rental rate for any item of rented property is the annual rental rate paid by the taxpayer for the property, less the aggregate annual subrental rates paid by subtenants of the taxpayer. See Subsection (11)(b) for special rules where the use of the net annual rental rate produces a negative or clearly inaccurate value or where property is used by the taxpayer at no charge or rented at a nominal rental rate.

(ii) Subrents are not deducted when the subrents constitute business income because the property that produces the subrents is used in the regular course of the trade or business of the taxpayer when it is producing the income. Accordingly there is no reduction in its value.

(iii) Annual rental rate is the amount paid as rental for property for a 12-month period; i.e., the amount of the annual rent. Where property is rented for less than a 12-month period, the rent paid for the actual period of rental shall constitute the annual rental rate for the tax period. However, where a taxpayer has rented property for a term of 12 or more months and the current tax period covers a period of less than 12 months (due, for example, to a reorganization or change of accounting period), the rent paid for the short tax period shall be annualized. If the rental term is for less than 12 months, the rent shall not be annualized beyond its term. Rent shall not be annualized because of the uncertain duration when the rental term is on a month to month basis.

(iv) Annual rent is the actual sum of money or other consideration payable, directly or indirectly, by the taxpayer or for its benefit for the use of the property and includes:

(A) Any amount payable for the use of real or tangible personal property, or any part thereof, whether designated as a fixed sum of money or as a percentage of sales, profits or otherwise.

(B) Any amount payable as additional rent or in lieu of rents, such as interest, taxes, insurance, repairs or any other items that are required to be paid by the terms of the lease or other arrangement, not including amounts paid as service charges, such as utilities, and janitor services. If a payment includes rent and other charges unsegregated, the amount of rent shall be determined by consideration of the relative values of the rent and other items.

(v) Annual rent does not include:

(A) incidental day-to-day expenses such as hotel or motel accommodations, or daily rental of automobiles;

(B) royalties based on extraction of natural resources, whether represented by delivery or purchase. For this purpose, a royalty includes any consideration conveyed or credited to a holder of an interest in property that constitutes a sharing of current or future production of natural resources from that property, irrespective of the method of payment or how that consideration may be characterized, whether as a royalty, advance royalty, rental, or otherwise.

(vi) Leasehold improvements shall, for the purposes of the property factor, be treated as property owned by the taxpayer regardless of whether the taxpayer is entitled to remove the improvements or the improvements revert to the lessor upon expiration of the lease. Hence, the original cost of leasehold improvements shall be included in the factor.

(g) Averaging Property Values. As a general rule, the average value of property owned by the taxpayer shall be determined by averaging the values at the beginning and end of the tax period. However, the Tax Commission may require or allow averaging by monthly values if that method of averaging is required to properly reflect the average value of the taxpayer's property for the tax period.

(i) Averaging by monthly values will generally be applied if substantial fluctuations in the values of the property exist during the tax period or where property is acquired after the beginning of the tax period or disposed of before the end of the tax period.

(ii) Example: The monthly value of the taxpayer's property was as follows:

                                                     TABLE

 January      $2,000
 February      2,000
 March         3,000
 April         3,500
 May           4,500
 June         10,000
 July         15,000
 August       17,000
 September    23,000
 October      25,000
 November     13,000
 December      2,000
 Total      $120,000
                                                            

The average value of the taxpayer's property includable in the property factor for the income year is determined as follows:

$120,000 / 12 = $10,000

(iii) Averaging with respect to rented property is achieved automatically by the method of determining the net annual rental rate of the property as set forth in Subsection (8)(g).

(9) Payroll Factor.

(a) The payroll factor of the apportionment formula shall include the total amount paid by the taxpayer in the regular course of its trade or business for compensation during the tax period.

(b) The total amount paid to employees is determined upon the basis of the taxpayer's accounting method. If the taxpayer has adopted the accrual method of accounting, all compensation properly accrued shall be deemed to have been paid. Notwithstanding the taxpayer's method of accounting, at the election of the taxpayer, compensation paid to employees may be included in the payroll factor by use of the cash method if the taxpayer is required to report compensation under that method for unemployment compensation purposes. The compensation of any employee on account of activities that are connected with the production of nonbusiness income shall be excluded from the factor.

(c) Payments made to an independent contractor or any other person not properly classifiable as an employee are excluded from the payroll factor. Only amounts paid directly to employees are included in the payroll factor. Amounts considered paid directly include the value of board, rent, housing, lodging, and other benefits or services furnished to employees by the taxpayer in return for personal services.

(d) Generally, a person will be considered to be an employee if he is included by the taxpayer as an employee for purposes of the payroll taxes imposed by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act. However, since certain individuals are included within the term employees in the Federal Insurance Contributions Act who would not be employees under the usual common law rules, it may be established that a person who is included as an employee for purposes of the Federal Insurance Contributions Act is not an employee for purposes of this rule.

(e)(A) In filing returns with this state, if the taxpayer departs from or modifies the treatment of compensation paid used in returns for prior years, the taxpayer shall disclose in the return for the current year the nature and extent of the modification.

(B) If the returns or reports filed by the taxpayer with all states to which the taxpayer reports under UDITPA are not uniform in the treatment of compensation paid, the taxpayer shall disclose in its return to this state the nature and extent of the variance.

(f) Denominator. The denominator of the payroll factor is the total compensation paid everywhere during the tax period. Accordingly, compensation paid to employees whose services are performed entirely in a state where the taxpayer is immune from taxation, for example, by P.L. 86-272, are included in the denominator of the payroll factor.

(g) Numerator. The numerator of the payroll factor is the total amount paid in this state during the tax period by the taxpayer for compensation. The tests in Section 59-7-316 to be applied in determining whether compensation is paid in this state are derived from the Model Unemployment Compensation Act. Accordingly, if compensation paid to employees is included in the payroll factor by use of the cash method of accounting or if the taxpayer is required to report compensation under that method for unemployment compensation purposes, it shall be presumed that the total wages reported by the taxpayer to this state for unemployment compensation purposes constitute compensation paid in this state except for compensation excluded under this Subsection (9). The presumption may be overcome by satisfactory evidence that an employee's compensation is not properly reportable to this state for unemployment compensation purposes.

(h) Compensation Paid in this State. Compensation is paid in this state if any one of the following tests applied consecutively are met:

(i) The employee's service is performed entirely within the state.

(ii) The employee's service is performed both within and without the state, but the service performed without the state is incidental to the employee's service within the state. The word incidental means any service that is temporary or transitory in nature, or that is rendered in connection with an isolated transaction.

(iii) If the employee's services are performed both within and without this state, the employee's compensation will be attributed to this state:

(A) if the employee's base of operations is in this state; or

(B) if there is no base of operations in any state in which some part of the service is performed, but the place from which the service is directed or controlled is in this state; or

(C) if the base of operations or the place from which the service is directed or controlled is not in any state in which some part of the service is performed but the employee's residence is in this state.

(10) Sales Factor. In General.

(a) Section 59-7-302 defines the term "sales" to mean all gross receipts of the taxpayer not allocated under Section 59-7-306 through 59-7-310. Thus, for purposes of the sales factor of the apportionment formula for the trade or business of the taxpayer, the term sales means all gross receipts derived by the taxpayer from transactions and activity in the regular course of the trade or business. The following are rules determining sales in various situations.

(i) In the case of a taxpayer engaged in manufacturing and selling or purchasing and reselling goods or products, sales includes all gross receipts from the sales of goods or products (or other property of a kind that would properly be included in the inventory of the taxpayer if on hand at the close of the tax period) held by the taxpayer primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of its trade or business. Gross receipts for this purpose means gross sales, less returns and allowances and includes all interest income, service charges, carrying charges, or time-price differential charges incidental to sales. Federal and state excise taxes (including sales taxes) shall be included as part of receipts if taxes are passed on to the buyer or included as part of the selling price of the product.

(ii) In the case of cost plus fixed fee contracts, such as the operation of a government-owned plant for a fee, sales includes the entire reimbursed cost, plus the fee.

(iii) In the case of a taxpayer engaged in providing services, such as the operation of an advertising agency, or the performance of equipment service contracts, or research and development contracts, sales includes the gross receipts from the performance of services including fees, commissions, and similar items.

(iv) In the case of a taxpayer engaged in renting real or tangible property, sales includes the gross receipts from the rental, lease or licensing of the use of the property.

(v) In the case of a taxpayer engaged in the sale, assignment, or licensing of intangible personal property such as patents and copyrights, sales includes the gross receipts therefrom.

(vi) If a taxpayer derives receipts from the sale of equipment used in its business, those receipts constitute sales. For example, a truck express company owns a fleet of trucks and sells its trucks under a regular replacement program. The gross receipts from the sales of the trucks are included in the sales factor.

(vii) In some cases certain gross receipts should be disregarded in determining the sales factor in order that the apportionment formula will operate fairly to apportion to this state the income of the taxpayer's trade or business. See Subsection (11)(c).

(viii) In filing returns with this state, if the taxpayer departs from or modifies the basis for excluding or including gross receipts in the sales factor used in returns for prior years, the taxpayer shall disclose in the return for the current year the nature and extent of the modification.

(ix) If the returns or reports filed by the taxpayer with all states to which the taxpayer reports under UDITPA are not uniform in the inclusion or exclusion of gross receipts, the taxpayer shall disclose in its return to this state the nature and extent of the variance.

(b) Denominator. The denominator of the sales factor shall include the total gross receipts derived by the taxpayer from transactions and activity in the regular course of its trade or business, except receipts excluded under Subsection (11)(d).

(c) Numerator. The numerator of the sales factor shall include gross receipts attributable to this state and derived by the taxpayer from transactions and activity in the regular course of its trade or business. All interest income, service charges, carrying charges, or time-price differential charges incidental to gross receipts shall be included regardless of the place where the accounting records are maintained or the location of the contract or other evidence of indebtedness.

(d) Sales of Tangible Personal Property in this State.

(i) Gross receipts from the sales of tangible personal property (except sales to the United States government; see Subsection (10)(e) are in this state:

(A) if the property is delivered or shipped to a purchaser within this state regardless of the f.o.b. point or other conditions of sale; or

(B) if the property is shipped from an office, store, warehouse, factory, or other place of storage in this state and the taxpayer is not taxable in the state of the purchaser.

(ii) Property shall be deemed to be delivered or shipped to a purchaser within this state if the recipient is located in this state, even though the property is ordered from outside this state.

(iii) Property is delivered or shipped to a purchaser within this state if the shipment terminates in this state, even though the property is subsequently transferred by the purchaser to another state.

(iv) The term "purchaser within this state" shall include the ultimate recipient of the property if the taxpayer in this state, at the designation of the purchaser, delivers to or has the property shipped to the ultimate recipient within this state.

(v) When property being shipped by a seller from the state of origin to a consignee in another state is diverted while en route to a purchaser in this state, the sales are in this state.

(vi) If the taxpayer is not taxable in the state of the purchaser, the sale is attributed to this state if the property is shipped from an office, store, warehouse, factory, or other place of storage in this state.

(vii) If a taxpayer whose salesman operates from an office located in this state makes a sale to a purchaser in another state in which the taxpayer is not taxable and the property is shipped directly by a third party to the purchaser, the following rules apply:

(A) If the taxpayer is taxable in the state from which the third party ships the property, then the sale is in that state.

(B) If the taxpayer is not taxable in the state from which the property is shipped, the sale is in this state.

(e)(i) Sales of Tangible Personal Property to United States Government in this state.

(ii) Gross receipts from the sales of tangible personal property to the United States government are in this state if the property is shipped from an office, store, warehouse, factory, or other place of storage in this state. For purposes of this rule, only sales for which the United States government makes direct payment to the seller pursuant to the terms of a contract constitute sales to the United States government. Thus, as a general rule, sales by a subcontractor to the prime contractor, the party to the contract with the United States government, do not constitute sales to the United States government.

(f)(i) Sales Other than Sales of Tangible Personal Property in this State.

(ii) In general, Subsections 59-7-319(2) through (7) provide for the inclusion in the numerator of the sales factor of gross receipts from transactions other than sales of tangible personal property (including transactions with the United States government).

(g) Receipts from the Performance of Services.

(i) Under Subsection 59-7-319(3), gross receipts from the performance of a service are considered to be in this state if the purchaser of the service receives a greater benefit of the service in this state than in any other state. In general, the "benefit of the service" approach under the statute reflects a market based approach, and the greater benefit of the service is typically received in the state in which the market for the service exists and where the purchaser is located.

(ii) For businesses engaged in certain industries, specific sourcing rules and guidelines that address the attribution of gross receipts from the performance of a service have been adopted. See Subsection (11)(b).

(iii) The benefit from performance of a service is in this state if any of the following conditions are met:

(A) The service relates to tangible personal property and is performed at a purchaser's location in this state.

(B) The service relates to tangible personal property that the service provider delivers directly or indirectly to a purchaser in this state after the service is performed.

(C) The service is provided to an individual who is physically present in this state at the time the service is received.

(D) The service is provided to a purchaser exclusively engaged in a trade or business in this state and relates to that purchaser's business in this state.

(E) The service is provided to a purchaser that is present in this state and the service relates to that purchaser's activities in this state.

(iv) If the benefit of the service is received in more than one state, the gross receipts from the service are to be sourced using reasonable and consistent methods of analysis to determine in which state the greater benefit of the service is received. Such methods must be supported by the service provider's business records at the time the service was provided. If the benefit of a service is received in Utah and one or more other states and the state where the greater benefit of the service is received cannot otherwise be readily determined through the provisions of this rule, the following sourcing rules are applied in sequential order:

(A) The receipt is sourced to this state if the office from which the purchaser placed the order for the service is in this state.

(B) If the office from which the order was placed cannot be determined, the receipt is sourced to this state if the purchaser's billing address is in this state.

(C) If the state of the purchaser's billing address cannot be determined, the receipt shall be included in the sales factor in this state.

(v) The term, "gross receipt from the performance of a service" applies to each individual sales transaction, and each sales transaction is considered a discrete transaction for purposes of determining whether the purchaser of the service receives a greater benefit of the service in this state than in any other state.

(vi) In determining whether the greater benefit from the performance of a service is received in this state, the benefit of the service in this state must be compared to the benefit of the service received in each individual state in which any benefit of the service is received, i.e., the benefit of the service received in Utah is not compared to the benefit of the service received in all other states combined.

(vii) In the context of a combined report, the sale of services between members of a unitary group included in a combined report shall be excluded from the combined report sales factor.

(viii) The following examples are provided to illustrate the application of Utah law in regard to receipts from the performance of a service:

(A) A company headquartered and primarily conducting business in Utah contracts for general accounting services with an accounting firm located in another state. The receipts for the accounting service are sourced to Utah regardless of where the services are performed, since the greater benefit of the services is received in this state.

(B) A Utah retailer hires a California agency to develop an advertising campaign targeting its Utah customers. The receipts for the advertising services are sourced to Utah regardless of where the services are actually performed.

(C) A multistate company hires a Colorado firm to perform an appraisal of its business properties in Utah and Colorado. The company has several locations in Utah. However, the headquarters of the company is in Colorado and the value of its properties located in Colorado exceed the value of its properties in Utah. The appraisal fee is not broken down by location of the assets or properties of the company. Use of the property values for each state to determine where the greater benefit of the appraisal services occurred is a reasonable method to determine where the appraisal service fees should be sourced and the service would be sourced to Colorado. However, if the appraisal fees are broken out separately for Colorado and Utah properties or the billing information by state is known, the appraisal fees pertaining to the Utah properties are sourced to Utah and the appraisal fees pertaining to the Colorado properties are sourced to Colorado.

(D) An Internet/cable television service provider provides services to purchasers in Utah as well as other surrounding states. As all of the benefit from the services provided to Utah purchasers is received at residences or business locations in Utah, the receipts from the services provided to Utah purchasers are sourced to Utah.

(E) Data processing services are performed for a company conducting interstate business. The services relate to computer systems that are mainly located in Utah although a few terminals are spread over several other states. Since the data processing services relate to the computer systems that are mainly located in Utah, the greater benefit of the service is considered to be received in Utah and the receipts from the services are sourced to Utah regardless of where the services are actually performed. The location of data processing equipment associated with the data processing services is a reasonable method of sourcing receipts from those services.

(F) Engineering services are performed in connection with a property being constructed in Utah. Since all of the benefit of the service is received in Utah where the construction takes place, the receipts from the engineering services are sourced to Utah regardless of where the actual engineering services are performed.

(G) A California law firm is retained to represent multiple plaintiffs in a class action lawsuit filed against a Utah corporation in a Utah court. Receipts received by the firm for the legal services are sourced to Utah notwithstanding the fact that some of the services were performed outside Utah. The greater benefit of the services is received in Utah since the lawsuit was filed against a Utah corporation in a Utah court.

(H) A moving company performs a moving service for an individual that has been transferred from New Jersey to Utah. The charges for services in connection with the move and unpacking services are sourced to Utah because the greater benefit of the moving services is received by the purchaser in the state to which the property is moved. However, any charges for specific services such as storage or packing that are performed outside of Utah, and that are separately stated, are not sourced to Utah.

(I) A car rental agency rents a vehicle that is picked up from and returned to one of its business locations in Utah. The receipts from the rental are sourced to Utah regardless of whether the vehicle leaves this state for the duration of the rental period.

(11) Special Rules:

(a) Section 59-7-320 provides that if the allocation and apportionment provisions of UDITPA do not fairly represent the extent of the taxpayer's business activity in this state, the taxpayer may petition for, or the tax administrator may require, in respect to all or any part of the taxpayer's business activity, if reasonable:

(i) separate accounting;

(ii) the exclusion of any one or more of the factors;

(iii) the inclusion of one or more additional factors that will fairly represent the taxpayer's business activity in this state; or

(iv) the employment of any other method to effectuate an equitable allocation and apportionment of the taxpayer's income.

(b) For businesses engaged in one or more of the following industries, specific statutes, rules, and guidelines have been adopted:

(i) airlines see Sections 59-7-312, 59-7-315, and 59-7-317;

(ii) financial institutions see rule R865-6F-32;

(iii) long term construction contractors see rule R865-6F-16;

(iv) publishing companies see rule R865-6F-31;

(v) railroads see rule R865-6F-29;

(vi) registered securities or commodities brokers and dealers see rule R865-6F-36;

(vii) telecommunications companies see rule R865-6F-33; and

(viii) trucking companies see rule R865-6F-19;and

(ix) businesses or affiliates of businesses providing services to a regulated investment company see Section 59-7-319.

(c) Property Factor.

The following special rules are established in respect to the property factor of the apportionment formula:

(i) If the subrents taken into account in determining the net annual rental rate under Subsection (8)(f)(i) produce a negative or clearly inaccurate value for any item of property, another method that will properly reflect the value of rented property may be required by the Tax Commission or requested by the taxpayer. In no case however, shall the value be less than an amount that bears the same ratio to the annual rental rate paid by the taxpayer for property as the fair market value of that portion of property used by the taxpayer bears to the total fair market value of the rented property.

(ii) If property owned by others is used by the taxpayer at no charge or rented by the taxpayer for a nominal rate, the net annual rental rate for the property shall be determined on the basis of a reasonable market rental rate for that property.

(d) Sales Factors.

The following special rules are established in respect to the sales factor of the apportionment formula:

(i) Where substantial amounts of gross receipts arise from an incidental or occasional sale of a fixed asset used in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business, those gross receipts shall be excluded from the sales factor. For example, gross receipts from the sale of a factory or plant will be excluded.

(ii) Insubstantial amounts of gross receipts arising from incidental or occasional transactions or activities may be excluded from the sales factor unless exclusion would materially affect the amount of income apportioned to this state. For example, the taxpayer ordinarily may include or exclude from the sales factor gross receipts from such transactions as the sale of office furniture, and business automobiles.

(iii) Where intangible property generates business income and the state in which that intangible property is being used can be determined, that income is included in the denominator of the sales factor and, if and to the extent that property is used in this state, in the numerator of the sales factor as well. For example, usually the state in which the intangible property is being used can be readily identified in respect to interest income received on deferred payments on sales of tangible property, see Subsection (10)(a)(i), and income from the sale, licensing or other use of intangible personal property.

(A) Where intangible property generates business income and the state in which that intangible property is being used cannot be determined, the income cannot be assigned to the numerator of the sales factor for any state and shall be excluded from the denominator of the sales factor. For example, where business income in the form of dividends received on stock, royalties received on patents or copyrights, or interest received on bonds, debentures or government securities results from the mere holding of the intangible personal property by the taxpayer, such dividends and interest shall be excluded from the denominator of the sales factor.

(B) Exclude from the denominator of the sales factor, receipts from the sales of securities unless the taxpayer is a dealer therein.

(iv) Where gains and losses on the sale of liquid assets are not excluded from the sales factor by other provisions under Subsections (11)(d)(i) through (iii), such gains or losses shall be treated as provided in this Subsection (11)(d)(iv). This Subsection (11)(d)(iv) does not provide rules relating to the treatment of other receipts produced from holding or managing such assets.

(A) If a taxpayer holds liquid assets in connection with one or more treasury functions of the taxpayer, and the liquid assets produce business income when sold, exchanged or otherwise disposed, the overall net gain from those transactions for each treasury function for the tax period is included in the sales factor. For purposes of this Subsection (11)(d)(iv), each treasury function will be considered separately.

(B) For purposes of this Subsection (11)(d)(iv), a liquid asset is an asset (other than functional currency or funds held in bank accounts) held to provide a relatively immediate source of funds to satisfy the liquidity needs of the trade or business. Liquid assets include:

(I) foreign currency (and trading positions therein) other than functional currency used in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business;

(II) marketable instruments (including stocks, bonds, debentures, options, warrants, futures contracts, etc.); and

(III) mutual funds which hold such liquid assets.

(C) An instrument is considered marketable if it is traded in an established stock or securities market and is regularly quoted by brokers or dealers in making a market. Stock in a corporation which is unitary with the taxpayer, or which has a substantial business relationship with the taxpayer, is not considered marketable stock.

(D) For purposes of this Subsection (11)(d)(iv)(D), a treasury function is the pooling and management of liquid assets for the purpose of satisfying the cash flow needs of the trade or business, such as providing liquidity for a taxpayer's business cycle, providing a reserve for business contingencies, business acquisitions, etc. A taxpayer principally engaged in the trade or business of purchasing and selling instruments or other items included in the definition of liquid assets set forth herein is not performing a treasury function with respect to income so produced.

(E) Overall net gain refers to the total net gain from all transactions incurred at each treasury function for the entire tax period, not the net gain from a specific transaction.

(e) Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC). In any case in which a corporation, subject to the income tax jurisdiction of Utah, owns 50 percent or more of the voting power of the stock of a corporation classified as a DISC under the provisions of Sec. 992 Internal Revenue Code, a combined filing with the DISC corporation is required.

(f) Partnership or Joint Venture Income. Income or loss from partnership or joint venture interests shall be included in income and apportioned to Utah through application of the three-factor formula consisting of property, payroll and sales. For apportionment purposes, the portion of partnership or joint venture property, payroll and sales to be included in the corporation's property, payroll and sales factors shall be computed on the basis of the corporation's ownership interest in the partnership or joint venture, and otherwise in accordance with other applicable provisions of this rule.

R865-6F-14. Extent to Which Federal Income Tax Provisions Are Followed for Corporation Franchise Tax Purposes Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-7-106, 59-7-108, 59-7-501, and 59-7-502.

(1) It is the policy of the commission, in matters involving the determination of income for Utah corporation franchise tax purposes, to follow as closely as possible federal requirements with respect to the same matters. In some instances the federal and state statutes differ, and as a result the federal rulings, regulations, and decisions may not be followed. Furthermore, in some instances, the commission may disagree with the federal determinations and does not consider them controlling for Utah corporation franchise tax purposes.

(2) The items of major importance ordinarily allowed in conformity with federal requirements are:

(a) depreciation,

(b) depletion,

(c) exploration and development expenses,

(d) intangible drilling costs,

(e) accounting methods and periods, and

(f) Subpart F income.

(3) The following are the major items that require different treatment under the state and federal statutes:

(a) combined reporting,

(b) consolidated returns,

(c) dividends received deduction,

(d) municipal bond interest,

(e) capital loss deduction,

(f) loss carry-overs and carry-backs, and

(g) gross-up on foreign dividends.

R865-6F-15. Installment Basis of Reporting Income in Year of Termination Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Section 59-7-112.

A. The Corporation Franchise Tax Act allows a corporation, under certain conditions and under rules prescribed by the Tax Commission, to report income arising from the sale or other disposition of property on a deferred or so-called installment basis. Thus, a gain technically realized at the time the sale is made may, at the election of the taxpayer, be reported on a deferred basis in accordance with the law and the following sections of this rule. The rule allowing deferment of reporting such income is only one of postponement of the tax, and not one of exemption from a tax otherwise lawfully due. Thus, the privilege of deferment is terminated if the taxpayer ceases to be subject to tax prior to the reporting of the entire amount of installment income. When a taxpayer elects to report income arising from the sale or other disposition of property as provided in Section 59-7-112, and the entire income therefrom has not been reported prior to the year that the taxpayer ceases to be subject to the tax imposed under the Utah Corporation Income and Franchise Tax Acts, the unreported income is included in the return for the last year in which the taxpayer is subject to the tax. This rule applies to all corporations which elect to report on the installment basis. If a corporation on this basis desires to dissolve or to withdraw, it must comply with the provisions hereof prior to issuance of the tax clearance certificate.

B. Income reported under the provisions of Section 59-7-112 and this rule shall be subject to the same treatment in the allocation of income; i.e., specific allocation or apportionment, as would have been accorded the original income from the sale under the provisions of the Uniform Division of Income for Tax Purposes Act. In case such income is subject to apportionment, the apportionment fraction for the year in which the income is reported applies rather than the year in which the sale was made.

R865-6F-16. Apportionment of Income of Long-Term Construction Contractors Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-7-302 through 321.

(1) When a taxpayer elects to use the percentage-of-completion method of accounting, or the completed contract method of accounting for long-term contracts, and has income from sources both within and without this state, the amount of business income derived from such long- term contracts from sources within this state is determined pursuant to this rule.

(2) Business income is apportioned to this state by a three-factor formula consisting of property, payroll, and sales--regardless of the method of accounting for long-term contracts elected by the taxpayer. The fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to the state shall be determined in accordance with rule R865-6F-8(4) and (7). Except as modified by this rule, the property factor shall be determined in accordance with R865-6F-8(8), the payroll factor in accordance with R865-6F-8(9), and the sales factor in accordance with R865-6F-8(10).

(a) Percentage-of-completion method. Under this method of accounting for long-term contracts, the amount included each year as business income from each contract is the amount by which the gross contract price (which corresponds to the percentage of the entire contract completed during the income years) exceeds all expenditures made during the income year in connection with the contract. Beginning and ending material and supplies inventories must be appropriately accounted for in reporting expenditures.

(b) Completed-contract method. Under this method of accounting, business income derived from long-term contracts is reported for the income year in which the contract is completed. A special computation is required to compute the amount of business income attributable to this state from each completed contract. All receipts and expenditures applicable to the contracts, whether complete or incomplete at the end of the income year, are excluded from other business income, which are apportioned by the regular three-factor formula of property, payroll, and sales.

(3) Property factor. In general, the numerator and denominator of the property factor is determined as set forth in Sections 59-7-312, 59-7-313, and 59-7-314 and the rules thereunder. However, the following special rules are also applicable:

(a) The average value of the taxpayer's cost (including materials and labor) of construction in progress, to the extent these costs exceed progress billings, are included in the denominator of the property factor. The value of those construction costs attributable to construction projects in this state are included in the numerator of the property factor. It may be necessary to use monthly averages if yearly averages do not properly reflect the average value of the taxpayer's equity.

(b) Rent paid for the use of equipment directly attributable to a particular construction project is included in the property factor at eight times the net annual rental rate, even though the rental expense may be capitalized into the cost of construction.

(c) The property factor is computed in the same manner for all long-term-contract methods of accounting and is computed for each income year, even though under the completed-contract method of accounting business income is computed separately.

(4) Payroll factor. In general, the numerator and denominator of the payroll factor are determined as set forth in Sections 59-7-315 and 59-7-316 and the rules thereunder. However, the following special rules are also applicable.

(a) Compensation paid to employees attributable to a particular construction project is included in the payroll factor even though capitalized into the cost of construction.

(b) Compensation paid to employees who, in the aggregate, perform most of their services in a state to which their employer does not report them for unemployment tax purposes, is attributed to the state where the services are performed. For example, a taxpayer engaged in a long-term contract in State X sends several key employees to that state to supervise the project. The taxpayer, for unemployment tax purposes reports these employees to State Y where the main office is maintained and where the employees reside. For payroll factor purposes and in accordance with Section 59-7-316 and the rule thereunder, the compensation is assigned to the numerator of State X.

(c) The payroll factor is computed in the same manner for all long-term-contract methods of accounting and is computed for each income year, even though under the completed contract method of accounting, business income is computed separately.

(5) Sales Factor. In general, the numerator and denominator of the sales factor shall be determined as set forth in Sections 59-7-317, 59-7-318, and 59-7-319 and the rules thereunder. However, the following special rules are also applicable.

(a) Gross receipts derived from the performance of a contract are attributable to this state if the construction project is located in this state. If the construction project is located partly within and partly without this state, the gross receipts attributable to this state are based upon the ratio which construction costs for the project in this state incurred during the coming year bears to the total of such construction costs for the entire project during the income year. Progress billings are ordinarily used to reflect gross receipts and must be shown in both the numerator and denominator of the sales factor.

(b) If the percentage-of-completion method is used, the sales factor includes only that portion of the gross contract price which corresponds to the percentage of the entire contract which was completed during the income year. For example, a construction contractor which had elected the percentage-of-completion method of accounting entered into a $9,000,000 long-term construction contract. At the end of its current income year (the second since starting the project) it estimated that the project was 30 percent completed. The amount of gross receipts included in the sales factor for the current income year is $2,700,000 (30 percent of $9,000,000), regardless of whether the taxpayer uses the accrual method or the cash method of accounting for receipts and disbursements.

(c) If the completed-contract method of accounting is used, the sales factor includes the portion of the gross receipts (progress billings) received under the cash basis or accrued, whichever is applicable, during the income year attributable to each contract. For example, a construction contractor which elected the completed-contract method of accounting entered into a long-term construction contract. At the end of its current income year (the second since starting the project) it had billed, and accrued on its books a total of $5,000,000 of which $2,000,000 had accrued in the first year the contract was undertaken, and $3,000,000 in the current (second) year. The amount of gross receipts included in the sales factor for the current income year is $3,000,000. If the taxpayer keeps its books on the cash basis, and as of the end of its current income year has received only $2,500,000 of the $3,000,000 billed during the current year, the amount of gross receipts to be included in the sales factor for the current year is $2,500,000.

(d) The sales factor, except as noted above in Subsections (5)(b) and (c), is computed in the same manner for all long-term contract methods of accounting and is computed for each income year--even though under the completed-contract method of accounting, business income is computed separately.

(6) The completed-contract method of accounting provides that the reporting of income (or loss) is deferred until the year the construction project is completed. In order to determine the amount of income which is attributable to sources within this state, a separate computation is made for each contract completed during the income year, regardless of whether the project is located within or without this state. The amount of income from each contract completed during the income year apportioned to this state is added to other business income apportioned to this state by the regular three-factor formula, and that total together with all nonbusiness income allocated to this state becomes the measure of tax for the income year. The amount of income (or loss) from each contract which is derived from sources within this state using the completed-contract method of accounting is computed as follows.

(a) In the income year the contract is completed, the income (or loss) therefrom is determined.

(b) The income (or loss) determined at Subsection (6)(a) is apportioned to this state by the following method:

(i) a fraction is determined for each year the contract was in progress (the numerator of which is the amount of construction costs paid or accrued each year the contract was in progress, and the denominator of which is the total of all construction costs for the project);

(ii) each fraction determined in Subsection (6)(b)(i) is multiplied by the apportionment formula percentage for that particular year;

(iii) these factors are totaled; and

(iv) the total income is multiplied by this combined percentage, and the resulting income (or loss) is the amount of contract business income assigned to this state.

(c) A corporation using the completed-contract method of accounting is required to include income derived from sources within this state from contracts within or without this state or income from incomplete contracts in progress outside this state in the year of withdrawal, dissolution, or cessation of business pursuant to Subsection (6)(d).

(d) The amount of income (or loss) from each such contract apportioned to this state is determined as if the percentage-of-completion method of accounting were used for all such contracts on the date of withdrawal, dissolution, or cessation of business. The amount of business income (or loss) for each such contract is the amount by which the gross contract price from each such contract from the commencement thereof to the date of withdrawal, dissolution, or cessation of business exceeds all expenditures made during such period in connection with each such contract. Beginning and ending material and supplies inventories must be appropriately accounted for in reporting expenditures in connection with each contract.

R865-6F-18. Exemptions from Corporate Franchise and Income Tax Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-7-101 and 59-7-102.

A. The following definitions apply to the exemption for corporate franchise and income tax for a farmers' cooperative.

1. "Member" means a person who shares in the profits of a cooperative association and is entitled to participate in the management of the association.

2. "Producer" means a person who, as owner or tenant, bears the risk of production and receives income based on farm production rather than fixed compensation.

B. In order to claim an exemption from corporate franchise and income tax provided for by Section 59-7-102, a corporation must submit to the Tax Commission form TC-161, Utah Registration for Exemption from Corporate Franchise or Income Tax, along with any information that form requires, for the Tax Commission's determination that the corporation satisfies the requirements of Section 59-7-102.

C. A corporation shall notify the Tax Commission of any change that affects its tax exempt status under Section 59-7-102.

D. For purposes of the Section 59-7-102 exemption for a farmers' cooperative, an association, corporation, or other organization similar to an association, corporation, or other organization of farmers or fruit growers includes establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, harvesting timber, and harvesting fish and other animals from a farm, ranch, or their natural habitat.

R865-6F-19. Taxation of Trucking Companies Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-7-302 through 59-7-321.

(1) Definitions:

(a) "Average value" of property means the amount determined by averaging the values of real and personal property at the beginning and end of the income tax year. The Tax Commission may require the averaging of monthly values during the income year or other averaging as necessary to reflect properly the average value of the trucking company's property.

(b) "Business and nonbusiness income" are as defined in R865-6F-8(1).

(c) "Mobile property" means all motor vehicles, including trailers, engaged directly in the movement of tangible personal property.

(d) "Mobile property mile" means the movement of a unit of mobile property a distance of one mile, whether loaded or unloaded.

(e) "Original cost" means the basis of the property for federal income tax purposes (prior to any federal income tax adjustments, except for subsequent capital additions, improvements thereto, or partial dispositions); or if the property has no such basis, or if the valuation of the property is unascertainable under the foregoing valuation standards, the property is included in the property factor at its fair market value as of the date of acquisition by the taxpayer.

(f) "Property used during the course of the income year" means property that is available for use in the taxpayer's trade or business during the income year.

(g) "Trucking company" means a corporation engaged in or transacting the business of transporting freight, merchandise, or other property for hire.

(h) "Value of owned real and tangible personal property" means the original cost of owned real and tangible personal property.

(i) "Value of rented real and tangible personal property" means the product of eight times the net annual rental rate of rented real and tangible personal property.

(2) When a trucking company has income from sources both within and without this state, the amount of business income from sources within this state shall be determined pursuant to this rule. In those cases, the first step is to determine what portion of the trucking company's income constitutes business income and what portion constitutes nonbusiness income. Nonbusiness income is directly allocable to specific states and business income is apportioned among the states in which the business is conducted and pursuant to the property, payroll, and sales apportionment factors set forth in this rule. The sum of the items of nonbusiness income directly allocated to this state, plus the amount of business income apportioned to this state, constitutes the amount of the taxpayer's entire net income subject to tax in this state.

(3) The fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to the state shall be determined in accordance with rule R865-6F-8(4) and (7). Except as modified by this rule, the property factor shall be determined in accordance with R865-6F-8(8), the payroll factor in accordance with R865-6F-8(9), and the sales factor in accordance with R865-6F-8(10).

(4) The denominator of the property factor shall be the average value of the total of the taxpayer's real and tangible personal property owned or rented and used within and without this state during the income year. The numerator of the property factor shall be the average value of the taxpayer's real and tangible personal property owned or rented and used, or available for use, within this state during the income year.

(a) In the determination of the numerator of the property factor, all property, except mobile property, shall be included in the numerator of the property factor.

(b) Mobile property located within and without this state during the income year shall be included in the numerator of the property factor in the ratio that the mobile property's miles within this state bear to the total miles of mobile property within and without this state.

(5) The denominator of the payroll factor is the compensation paid within and without this state by the taxpayer during the income year for the production of business income. The numerator of the payroll factor is the compensation paid within this state during the income year by the taxpayer for the production of business income.

(a) With respect to all personnel, except those performing services within and without this state, compensation shall be included in the numerator as provided in R865-6F-8(9).

(b) With respect to personnel performing services within and without this state, compensation shall be included in the numerator of the payroll factor in the ratio that their services performed within this state bear to their services performed within and without this state.

(6) In general, all revenue derived from transactions and activities in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business that produce business income shall be included in the denominator of the revenue factor. The numerator of the revenue factor is the total revenue of the taxpayer in this state during the income year.

(a) The total state revenue of the taxpayer, other than revenue from hauling freight, mail, and express, shall be attributable to this state in accordance with R865-6F-8(10).

(b) The total revenue of the taxpayer attributable to this state during the income year from hauling freight, mail, and express shall be:

(i) Intrastate: all receipts from any shipment that both originates and terminates within this state; and

(ii) Interstate: that portion of the receipts from movements or shipments passing through, into, or out of this state as determined by the ratio that the mobile property miles traveled by the movements or shipments within this state bear to the total mobile property miles traveled by the movements or shipments within and without this state.

(7) The taxpayer shall maintain the records necessary to identify mobile property and to enumerate by state the mobile property miles traveled by mobile property. These records are subject to review by the commission or its agents.

(8) This rule requires apportionment of income to this state if during the course of the income tax year, the trucking company:

(a) owned or rented any real or personal property in this state;

(b) made any pickups or deliveries within this state;

(c) traveled more than 25,000 mobile property miles within this state, provided that the total mobile property miles traveled within this state during the income tax year exceeded three percent of the total mobile property miles traveled in all states by the trucking company during the period; or

(d) made more than 12 trips into this state.

R865-6F-22. Treatment of Loss Carrybacks and Carryforwards Spanning a Change in Reporting Methods Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-7-402 and 59-7-403.

A. For purposes of this rule, "worldwide year" means a year in which a corporation filed a worldwide combined report as set forth in Sections 59-7-101(34) and 59-7-403.

B. For purposes of this rule, "water's edge year" means a year in which a corporation filed a combined report as set forth in Sections 59-7-101(33) and 59-7-402.

C. A corporation that receives permission from the Tax Commission to change its filing method to the water's edge method after having elected the worldwide method will be required to forfeit any unused loss carryovers that were generated in any worldwide year as a condition precedent to making that change. Any losses generated in a subsequent water's edge year may not be carried back against income earned in any year prior to the change to the water's edge method, but must be carried to a post-change water's edge year.

D. A corporation that elects the worldwide filing method subsequent to adoption of this rule will be required to forfeit any unused loss carryovers that were generated in any water's edge year. Any losses generated in a subsequent worldwide year may not be carried back against income earned in any year prior to the change to the worldwide election method, but must be carried to a post-change worldwide year.

R865-6F-24. Attribution of Sales of Tangible Property to the Sales Factor for Apportionment of Business Income Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Section 59-7-317.

A. For purposes of 15 U.S.C. Section 381, the phrase "activities within such state by or on behalf of such person" means the activities of any member of a unitary business as that term is defined in Section 59-7-302.

B. If the activity in this state of any member of a unitary business exceeds the activity protected by 15 U.S.C. Section 381, sales of tangible property into this state, from an out-of-state location by any member of the unitary business shall be included in this state's sales factor numerator under Section 59-7-317.

C. If any member of a unitary business is taxable in another state under Section 59-7-305, sales of tangible property from a Utah location, into that state by any member of the unitary business shall not be thrown back to this state as ordinarily provided under Section 59-7-318.

D. This rule is effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1992.

R865-6F-26. Historic Preservation Tax Credits Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Section 59-7-609.

A. Definitions:

1. "Qualified rehabilitation expenditures" includes architectural, engineering, and permit fees.

2. "Qualified rehabilitation expenditures" does not include movable furnishings.

3. "Residential" as used in Section 59-7-609 applies only to the use of the building after the project is completed.

B. Taxpayers shall file an application for approval of all proposed rehabilitation work with the Division of State History prior to the completion of restoration or rehabilitation work on the project. The application shall be on a form provided by the Division of State History.

C. Rehabilitation work must receive a unique certification number from the State Historic Preservation Office in order to be eligible for the tax credit.

D. In order to receive final certification and be issued a unique certification number for the project, the following conditions must be satisfied:

1. The project approved under B. must be completed.

2. Upon completion of the project, taxpayers shall notify the State Historic Preservation Office and provide that office an opportunity to review, examine, and audit the project. In order to be certified, a project shall be completed in accordance with the approved plan and the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation.

3. Taxpayers restoring buildings not already listed on the National Register of Historic Places shall submit a complete National Register Nomination Form. If the nomination meets National Register criteria, the State Historic Preservation Office shall approve the nomination.

4. Projects must be completed, and the $10,000 expenditure threshold required by Section 59-7-609 must be met, within 36 months of the approval received pursuant to B.

5. During the course of the project and for three years thereafter, all work done on the building shall comply with the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation.

E. Proof of State Historic Preservation Office certification shall be made by:

1. receiving an authorization form from the State Historic Preservation Office containing the certification number;

2. attaching that authorization form to the tax return for the year in which the credit is claimed.

F. Credit amounts shall be applied against Utah corporate franchise tax due in the tax year in which the project receives final certification under D.

G. Credit amounts greater than the amount of Utah corporate franchise tax due in a tax year shall be carried forward to the extent provided by Section 59-7-609.

H. Carryforward historic preservation tax credits shall be applied against Utah franchise tax due before the application of any historic preservation credits earned in the current year and on a first-earned, first-used basis.

I. Original records supporting the credit claimed must be maintained for three years following the date the return was filed claiming the credit.

R865-6F-27. Order of Credits Applied Against Utah Corporate Franchise Tax Due Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-6-102, 59-13-202, and 59-13-301, and Title 59, Chapter 7, and Title 63M, Chapter 1.

Taxpayers shall deduct credits authorized by Section 59-6-102, Section 59-13-202, Section 59-13-301, Title 59, Chapter 7, and Title 63M, Chapter 1 against Utah corporate franchise tax due in the following order:

(1) nonrefundable credits;

(2) nonrefundable credits with a carryforward;

(3) refundable credits.

R865-6F-29. Taxation of Railroads Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-7-302 through 59-7-321.

(1) Definitions.

(a) "Average value" of property means the amount determined by averaging the values of real and personal property at the beginning and ending of the income tax year. The commission may require the averaging of monthly values during the income year or other averaging as necessary to reflect properly the average value of the railroad's property.

(b) "Business and nonbusiness income" are as defined in R865-6F-8(1).

(c) "Car-mile" means a movement of a unit of car equipment a distance of one mile.

(d) "Locomotive" means a self-propelled unit of equipment designed solely for moving other equipment.

(e) "Locomotive-mile" means the movement of a locomotive a distance of one mile under its own power.

(f) "Net annual rental rate" means the annual rental rate paid by the taxpayer less any annual rental rate received by the taxpayer from subrentals.

(g) "Original cost" means the basis of the property for federal income tax purposes (prior to any federal income tax adjustments except for subsequent capital additions, improvements thereto or partial dispositions). If the original cost of property is unascertainable under the foregoing valuation standards, the property is included in the property factor at its fair market value as of the date of acquisition by the taxpayer.

(h) "Property used during the income year" means property that is available for use in the taxpayer's trade or business during the income year.

(i) "Rent" does not include the per diem and mileage charges paid by the taxpayer for the temporary use of railroad cars owned or operated by another railroad.

(j) "Value of owned real and tangible personal property" means the original cost of owned real and tangible personal property.

(k) "Value of rented real and tangible personal property" means the product of eight times the net annual rental rate of rented real and tangible personal property.

(2) When a railroad has income from sources both within and without this state, the amount of business income from sources within this state shall be determined pursuant to this rule. In those cases, the first step is to determine what portion of the railroad's income constitutes business income and what portion constitutes nonbusiness income. Nonbusiness income is directly allocable to specific states and business income is apportioned among the states in which the business is conducted and pursuant to the property, payroll, and sales apportionment factors set forth in this rule. The sum of the items of nonbusiness income directly allocated to this state, plus the amount of business income apportioned to this state, constitutes the amount of the taxpayer's entire net income subject to tax in this state.

(3) The fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to the state shall be determined in accordance with rule R865-6F-8(4) and (7). Except as modified by this rule, the property factor shall be determined in accordance with R865-6F-8(8), the payroll factor in accordance with R865-6F-8(9),and the sales factor in accordance with R865-6F-8(10).

(4) The denominator of the property factor shall be the average value of the total of the taxpayer's real and tangible personal property owned or rented and used within and without this state during the income year. The numerator of the property factor shall be the average value of the taxpayer's real and tangible personal property owned or rented and used within this state during the income year.

(a) In determining the numerator of the property factor, all property except mobile or movable property such as passenger cars, freight cars, locomotives and freight containers located within and without this state during the income year shall be included in the numerator of the property factor.

(b) Mobile or movable property such as passenger cars, freight cars, locomotives and freight containers located within and without this state during the income year shall be included in the numerator of the property factor in the ratio that locomotive-miles and car-miles in the state bear to the total of locomotive-miles and car-miles both within and without this state.

(5) The denominator of the payroll factor is the total compensation paid within and without this state by the taxpayer during the income year for the production of business income. The numerator of the payroll factor is the amount of compensation paid within this state during the income year for the production of business income.

(a) With respect to all personnel except engine men and trainmen performing services on interstate trains, compensation shall be included in the numerator as provided in R865-6F-8(9).

(b) With respect to engine men and trainmen performing services on interstate trains, compensation shall be included in the numerator of the payroll factor in the ratio that their services performed in this state bear to their services performed within and without this state.

(c) Compensation for services performed in this state shall be deemed to be the compensation reported or required to be reported by employees for determination of their income tax liability to this state.

(6) In general, all revenue derived from transactions and activities in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business within and without this state that produce business income, except per diem and mileage charges that are calculated by the taxpayer, shall be included in the denominator of the revenue factor. The numerator of the revenue factor is the total revenue of the taxpayer within this state during the income year.

(a) The total revenue of the taxpayer in this state during the income year, other than revenue from hauling freight, passengers, mail and express, shall be attributable to this state in accordance with R865-6F-8(10).

(b) The total revenue of the taxpayer attributable to this state during the income year for the numerator of the revenue factor from hauling freight, mail and express shall be attributable to this state as follows:

(i) Intrastate: all receipts from shipments that both originate and terminate within this state; and

(ii) Interstate: that portion of the receipts from each movement or shipment passing through, into, or out of this state is determined by the ratio that the miles traveled by the movement or shipment in this state bears to the total miles traveled by the movement or shipment from point of origin to destination.

(c) The total revenue of the taxpayer attributable to this state during the income year for the numerator of the revenue factor from hauling passengers shall be attributable to this state as follows:

(i) Intrastate: all receipts from the transportation of passengers, including mail and express handled in passenger service, that both originate and terminate within this state; and

(ii) Interstate: that portion of the receipts from the transportation of interstate passengers, including mail and express handled in passenger service, determined by the ratio that passenger miles in this state bear to the total of passenger miles within and without this state.

(7) The taxpayer shall maintain the records necessary to identify mobile property and to enumerate by state the mobile property miles traveled by mobile property. These records are subject to review by the commission or its agents.

R865-6F-30. Higher Education Savings Incentive Program Tax Deduction Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 53B-8a-112, 59-7-105, and 59-7-106.

(1) "Trust" means the Utah Educational Savings Plan Trust created pursuant to Section 53B-8a-103.

(2) The trustee of the trust shall file a form TC-675H, Statement of Account with the Utah Educational Savings Plan Trust, with the commission, for each trust account owner. The TC-675H shall contain the following information for the calendar year:

(a) the amount contributed to the trust by the account owner; and

(b) the amount disbursed to the account owner pursuant to Section 53B-8a-109.

(3) The trustee of the trust shall file form TC-675H with the commission on or before January 31 of the year following the calendar year on which the forms are based.

(4) The trustee of the trust shall provide each trust account owner with a copy of the form TC-675H on or before January 31 of the year following the calendar year on which the TC-675H is based.

(5) The trustee of the trust shall maintain original records supporting the amounts listed on the TC-675H for the current year filing and the three previous year filings.

R865-6F-31. Taxation of Publishing Companies Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-7-302 through 59-7-321.

(1) Definitions.

(a) "Outer-jurisdictional property" means certain types of tangible personal property, such as orbiting satellites, undersea transmission cables and the like, that are owned or rented by the taxpayer and used in the business of publishing, licensing, selling or otherwise distributing printed material, but that are not physically located in any particular state.

(b) "Print" or "printed material" means the physical embodiment or printed version of any thought or expression, including a play, story, article, column or other literary, commercial, educational, artistic or other written or printed work. The determination of whether an item is or consists of print or printed material shall be made without regard to its content. Printed material may take the form of a book, newspaper, magazine, periodical, trade journal, or any other form of printed matter and may be contained on any medium or property.

(c) "Purchaser" and "subscriber" mean the individual, residence, business or other outlet that is the ultimate or final recipient of the print or printed material. Neither term shall mean or include a wholesaler or other distributor of print or printed material.

(d) "Terrestrial facility" shall include any telephone line, cable, fiber optic, microwave, earth station, satellite dish, antennae, or other relay system or device that is used to receive, transmit, relay or carry any data, voice, image or other information that is transmitted from or by any outer-jurisdictional property to the ultimate recipient thereof.

(2) When a taxpayer in the business of publishing, selling, licensing or distributing books, newspapers, magazines, periodicals, trade journals, or other printed material has income from sources both within and without this state, the amount of business income from sources within this state shall be determined pursuant to this rule. In those cases, the first step is to determine what portion of the taxpayer's income constitutes business income and what portion constitutes nonbusiness income. Nonbusiness income is directly allocable to specific states and business income is apportioned among the states in which the business is conducted and pursuant to the property, payroll, and sales apportionment factors set forth in this rule. The sum of the items of nonbusiness income directly allocated to this state, plus the amount of business income apportioned to this state, constitutes the amount of the taxpayer's entire net income subject to tax in this state.

(3) The fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to the state shall be determined in accordance with rule R865-6F-8(4) and (7). Except as modified by this rule, the property factor shall be determined in accordance with R865-6F-8(8), the payroll factor in accordance with R865-6F-8(9), and the sales factor in accordance with R865-6F-8(10).

(4) All real and tangible personal property, including outer-jurisdictional property, whether owned or rented, that is used in the business shall be included in the denominator of the property factor.

(5)(a) All real and tangible personal property owned or rented by the taxpayer and used within this state during the tax period shall be included in the numerator of the property factor.

(b) Outer-jurisdictional property owned or rented by the taxpayer and used in this state during the tax period shall be included in the numerator of the property factor in the ratio that the value of the property attributable to its use by the taxpayer in business activities within this state bears to the value of the property attributable to its use in the taxpayer's business activities within and without this state.

(i) The value of outer-jurisdictional property attributed to the numerator of the property factor of this state shall be determined by the ratio that the number of uplinks and downlinks, or half-circuits, used during the tax period to transmit from this state and to receive in this state any data, voice, image or other information bears to the number of uplinks and downlinks or half-circuits used for transmissions within and without this state.

(ii) If information regarding uplink and downlink or half-circuit usage is not available or if measurement of activity is not applicable to the type of outer-jurisdictional property used by the taxpayer, the value of that property attributed to the numerator of the property factor of this state shall be determined by the ratio that the amount of time, in terms of hours and minutes of use, or other measurement of use of outer-jurisdictional property that was used during the tax period to transmit from this state and to receive within this state any data, voice, image or other information bears to the total amount of time or other measurement of use that was used for transmissions within and without this state.

(iii) Outer-jurisdictional property shall be considered to have been used by the taxpayer in its business activities within this state when that property, wherever located, has been employed by the taxpayer in any manner in the publishing, sale, licensing or other distribution of books, newspapers, magazines or other printed material, and any data, voice, image or other information is transmitted to or from this state either through an earth station or terrestrial facility located within this state.

(A) One example of the use of outer-jurisdictional property is when the taxpayer owns its own communications satellite or leases the use of uplinks, downlinks or circuits or time on a communications satellite for the purpose of sending messages to its newspaper printing facilities or employees. The states in which any printing facility that receives the satellite communications are located and the state from which the communications were sent would, under this rule, apportion the cost of the owned or rented satellite to their respective property factors based upon the ratio of the in-state use of the satellite to its usage within and without the state.

(B) Assume that ABC Newspaper Co. owns a total of $400,000,000 of property and, in addition, owns and operates a communication satellite for the purpose of sending news articles to its printing plant in this state, as well as for communicating with its printing plants and facilities or news bureaus, employees and agents located in other states and throughout the world. Also assume that the total value of its real and tangible personal property that was permanently located in this state for the entire income year was valued at $3,000,000. Assume also that the original cost of the satellite is $100,000,000 for the tax period and that of the 10,000 uplinks and downlinks or half-circuits of satellite transmissions used by the taxpayer during the tax period, 200 or 2% are attributable to its satellite communications received in and sent from this state. Assume further that the company's mobile property that was used partially within this state, consisting of 40 delivery trucks, was determined to have an original cost of $4,000,000 and was used in this state for 95 days. The total value of property attributed to this state is determined as follows:

                                                     TABLE

Value of property permanently in state =        $3,000,000

Value of mobile property:
95/365 or (.260274) x $4,000,000 =              $1,041,096

Value of leased satellite property used in-state:
(.02) x $100,000,000 =                          $2,000,000

Total value of property attributable to state = $6,041,096

Total property factor percentage:
$6,041,096/$500,000,000 =                        1.2082%
                                                            

(6) The payroll factor shall be determined in accordance with Sections 59-7-315 and 59-7-316.

(7) The denominator of the sales factor shall include the total gross receipts derived by the taxpayer from transactions and activity in the regular course of its trade or business, except receipts that may be excluded under R865-6F-8(11)(c).

(8) The numerator of the sales factor shall include all gross receipts of the taxpayer from sources within this state, including the following:

(a) Gross receipts derived from the sale of tangible personal property, including printed materials, delivered or shipped to a purchaser or a subscriber in this state; and

(b) Except as provided in Subsection (8)(b)(ii), gross receipts derived from advertising and the sale, rental, or other use of the taxpayer's customer lists or any portion thereof shall be attributed to this state as determined by the taxpayer's circulation factor during the tax period. The circulation factor shall be determined for each publication of printed material containing advertising and shall be equal to the ratio that the taxpayer's in-state circulation to purchasers and subscribers of its printed material bears to its circulation to purchasers and subscribers within and without the state.

(i) The circulation factor for an individual publication shall be determined by reference to the rating statistics as reflected in such sources as Audit Bureau of Circulations or other comparable sources, provided that the source selected is consistently used from year to year for that purpose. If none of the foregoing sources are available, or, if available, not in form or content sufficient for these purposes, the circulation factor shall be determined from the taxpayer's books and records.

(ii) When specific items of advertisements can be shown, upon clear and convincing evidence, to have been distributed solely to a limited regional or local geographic area in which this state is located, the taxpayer may petition, or the commission may require, that a portion of those receipts be attributed to the sales factor numerator of this state on the basis of a regional or local geographic area circulation factor and not upon the basis of the circulation factor provided by Subsection (8)(b)(i). This attribution shall be based upon the ratio that the taxpayer's circulation to purchasers and subscribers located in this state of the printed material containing specific items of advertising bears to its total circulation of printed material to purchasers and subscribers located within the regional or local geographic area. This alternative attribution method shall be permitted only upon the condition that receipts are not double counted or otherwise included in the numerator of any other state.

(iii) If the purchaser or subscriber is the United States government or if the taxpayer is not taxable in a state, the gross receipts from all sources, including the receipts from the sale of printed material, from advertising, and from the sale, rental or other use of the taxpayer's customer lists, or any portion thereof that would have been attributed by the circulation factor to the numerator of the sales factor for that state, shall be included in the numerator of the sales factor of this state if the printed material or other property is shipped from an office, store, warehouse, factory, or other place of storage or business in this state.

R865-6F-32. Taxation of Financial Institutions Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-7-302 through 59-7-321.

(1) Definitions.

(a) "Billing address" means the location indicated in the books and records of the taxpayer on the first day of the taxable year, or on the later date in the taxable year when the customer relationship began, where any notice, statement or bill relating to a customer's account is mailed.

(b) "Borrower or credit card holder located in this state" means:

(i) a borrower, other than a credit card holder, that is engaged in a trade or business that maintains its commercial domicile in this state; or

(ii) a borrower that is not engaged in a trade or business, or a credit card holder, whose billing address is in this state.

(c) "Commercial domicile" means:

(i) the place from which the trade or business is principally managed and directed; or

(ii) if a taxpayer is organized under the laws of a foreign country, or of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States, that taxpayer's commercial domicile shall be deemed for the purposes of this rule to be the state of the United States or the District of Columbia from which that taxpayer's trade or business in the United States is principally managed and directed. It shall be presumed, subject to rebuttal, that the location from which the taxpayer's trade or business is principally managed and directed is the state of the United States or the District of Columbia to which the greatest number of employees are regularly connected or out of which they are working, irrespective of where the services of those employees are performed, as of the last day of the taxable year.

(d) "Compensation" means wages, salaries, commissions, and any other form of remuneration paid to employees for personal services that are included in the employee's gross income under the federal Internal Revenue Code. In the case of employees not subject to the federal Internal Revenue Code, the determination of whether payments constitute gross income under the federal Internal Revenue Code shall be made as though those employees were subject to the federal Internal Revenue Code.

(e) "Credit card" means a credit, travel, or entertainment card.

(f) "Credit card issuer's reimbursement fee" means the fee a taxpayer receives from a merchant's bank because one of the persons to whom the taxpayer has issued a credit card has charged merchandise or services to the credit card.

(g) "Employee" means, with respect to a particular taxpayer, any individual who, under the usual common law rules applicable in determining the employer-employee relationship, has the status of an employee of that taxpayer.

(h) "Financial institution" means:

(i) any corporation or other business entity registered under state law as a bank holding company or registered under the Federal Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, or registered as a savings and loan holding company under the Federal National Housing Act, as amended;

(ii) a national bank organized and existing as a national bank association pursuant to the provisions of the National Bank Act, 12 U.S.C. Sections 21 et seq.;

(iii) a savings association or federal savings bank as defined in the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, 12 U.S.C. Section 1813(b)(1);

(iv) any bank, industrial loan corporation, or thrift institution incorporated or organized under the laws of any state;

(v) any corporation organized under the provisions of 12 U.S.C. Sections611 through 631.

(vi) any agency or branch of a foreign depository as defined in 12 U.S.C. Section 3101;

(vii) a production credit association organized under the Federal Farm Credit Act of 1933, all of whose stock held by the Federal Production Credit Corporation has been retired;

(viii) any corporation whose voting stock is more than 50 percent owned, directly or indirectly, by any person or business entity described in Subsections (1)(h)(i) through (vii), other than an insurance company taxable under Title 59, Chapter 9, Taxation of Admitted Insurers;

(ix) a corporation or other business entity that derives more than 50 percent of its total gross income for financial accounting purposes from finance leases. For purposes of this subsection, a "finance lease" shall mean any lease transaction that is the functional equivalent of an extension of credit and that transfers substantially all of the benefits and risks incident to the ownership of property. The phrase shall include any direct financing lease or leverage lease that meets the criteria of Financial Accounting Standards Board Statement No. 13, Accounting for Leases, or any other lease that is accounted for as a financing lease by a lessor under generally accepted accounting principles. For this classification to apply:

(A) the average of the gross income in the current tax year and immediately preceding two tax years must satisfy the more than 50 percent requirement; and

(B) gross income from incidental or occasional transactions shall be disregarded;

(x) any other person or business entity, other than an insurance company, a credit union exempt from the corporation franchise tax under Section 59-7-102, a real estate broker, or a securities dealer, that derives more than 50 percent of its gross income from activities that a person described in Subsections (1)(h)(ii) through(vii) and (1)(h)(ix) is authorized to transact.

(A) For purposes of this subsection, the computation of gross income shall not include income from non-recurring, extraordinary items; and

(B) The commission is authorized to exclude any person from the application of Subsection (1)(h)(x) upon receipt of proof, by clear and convincing evidence, that the income-producing activity of that person is not in substantial competition with those persons described in Subsections (1)(h)(ii) through (vii) and (1)(h)(ix).

(i) "Gross rents" means the actual sum of money or other consideration payable for the use or possession of property.

(i) Gross rents includes:

(A) any amount payable for the use or possession of real property or tangible property whether designated as a fixed sum of money or as a percentage of receipts, profits or otherwise;

(B) any amount payable as additional rent or in lieu of rent, such as interest, taxes, insurance, repairs or any other amount required to be paid by the terms of a lease or other arrangement; and

(C) a proportionate part of the cost of any improvement to real property, made by or on behalf of the taxpayer, that reverts to the owner or lessor upon termination of a lease or other arrangement. The amount included in gross rents is the amount of amortization or depreciation allowed in computing the taxable income base for the taxable year. However, where a building is erected on leased land by or on behalf of the taxpayer, the value of the land is determined by multiplying the gross rent by eight and the value of the building is determined in the same manner as if owned by the taxpayer.

(ii) Gross rents does not include:

(A) reasonable amounts payable as separate charges for water and electric service furnished by the lessor;

(B) reasonable amounts payable as service charges for janitorial services furnished by the lessor;

(C) reasonable amounts payable for storage, provided those amounts are payable for space not designated and not under the control of the taxpayer; and

(D) that portion of any rental payment applicable to the space subleased from the taxpayer and not used by the taxpayer.

(j) "Loan" means any extension of credit resulting from direct negotiations between the taxpayer and the taxpayer's customer, or the purchase, in whole or in part, of an extension of credit from another.

(i) Loan includes participations, syndications, and leases treated as loans for federal income tax purposes.

(ii) Loan does not include properties treated as loans under Section 595 of the federal Internal Revenue Code, futures or forward contracts, options, notional principal contracts such as swaps, credit card receivables, including purchased credit card relationships, non-interest bearing balances due from depository institutions, cash items in the process of collection, federal funds sold, securities purchased under agreements to resell, assets held in a trading account, securities, interests in a real estate mortgage investment conduit as defined in Section 860D of the Internal Revenue Code, or other mortgage-backed or asset-backed security, and other similar items.

(k) "Loans secured by real property" means that fifty percent or more of the aggregate value of the collateral used to secure a loan or other obligation, when valued at fair market value as of the time the original loan or obligation was incurred, was real property.

(l) "Merchant discount" means the fee, or negotiated discount, charged to a merchant by the taxpayer for the privilege of participating in a program whereby a credit card is accepted in payment for merchandise or services sold to the card holder.

(m) "Participation" means an extension of credit in which an undivided ownership interest is held on a pro rata basis in a single loan or pool of loans and related collateral. In a loan participation, the credit originator initially makes the loan and then subsequently resells all or a portion of it to other lenders. The participation may or may not be known to the borrower.

(n) "Person" means an individual, estate, trust, partnership, corporation, and any other business entity.

(o) "Principal base of operations" means:

(i) with respect to transportation property, the place of more or less permanent nature from which that property is regularly directed or controlled; and

(ii) with respect to an employee, the place of more or less permanent nature from which the employee regularly:

(A) starts his work and to which he customarily returns in order to receive instructions from his employer;

(B) communicates with his customers or other persons; or

(C) performs any other functions necessary to the exercise of his trade or profession at some other point or points.

(p)(i) "Real property owned" and "tangible personal property owned" mean real and tangible personal property, respectively:

(A) on which the taxpayer may claim depreciation for federal income tax purposes; or

(B) property to which the taxpayer holds legal title and on which no other person may claim depreciation for federal income tax purposes, or could claim depreciation if subject to federal income tax.

(ii) Real and tangible personal property do not include coin, currency, or property acquired in lieu of or pursuant to a foreclosure.

(q) "Regular place of business" means an office at which the taxpayer carries on business in a regular and systematic manner and is continuously maintained, occupied, and used by employees of the taxpayer.

(r) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, or any foreign country.

(s) "Syndication" means an extension of credit in which two or more persons fund and each person is at risk only up to a specified percentage of the total extension of credit or up to a specified dollar amount.

(t) "Taxable" means:

(i) a taxpayer is subject in another state to a net income tax, a franchise tax measured by net income, a franchise tax for the privilege of doing business, a corporate stock tax, including a bank shares tax, a single business tax, an earned surplus tax, or any tax imposed upon or measured by net income; or

(ii) another state has jurisdiction to subject the taxpayer to taxes regardless of whether that state actually imposes those taxes.

(u) "Transportation property" means vehicles and vessels capable of moving under their own power, such as aircraft, trains, water vessels and motor vehicles, as well as any equipment or containers attached to that property, such as rolling stock, barges, and trailers.

(2) Apportionment and Allocation.

(a) A financial institution whose business activity is taxable both within and without this state, or a financial institution whose business activity is taxable within this state and is a member of a unitary group that includes one or more financial institutions where any member of the group is taxable without this state, shall allocate and apportion its net income as provided in this rule. All items of nonbusiness income shall be allocated pursuant to the provisions of Section 59-7-306. A financial institution organized under the laws of a foreign country, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a territory or possession of the United States, whose effectively connected income, as defined under the federal Internal Revenue Code, is taxable both within this state and within another state, other than the state in which it is organized, shall allocate and apportion its net income as provided in this rule.

(b) The fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to the state shall be determined in accordance with rule R865-6F-8(4) and (7). Except as modified by this rule, the property factor shall be determined in accordance with R865-6F-8(8), the payroll factor in accordance with R865-6F-8(9), and the sales factor in accordance with R865-6F-8(10).

(c) Each factor shall be computed according to the cash or accrual method of accounting as used by the taxpayer for the taxable year.

(d) If a unitary group of corporations filing a combined report includes one or more corporations meeting the definition of financial institution and one or more corporations that do not meet that definition, the provisions of this rule regarding the calculation of the property, payroll, and receipts factors of the apportionment fraction shall apply only to those corporations meeting the definition of financial institution. Those corporations not meeting the definition of financial institution shall compute their apportionment data based on rule R865-6F-8 or such other industry apportionment rule adopted by the commission that may be applicable. The apportionment data of all members of the unitary group shall be included in calculating a single apportionment fraction for the unitary group. The numerators and denominators of the property, payroll, and receipts factors of the financial institutions shall be added to the numerators and denominators, respectively, of the property, payroll, and sales factors of the nonfinancial institutions to determine the property, payroll, and sales factors of the unitary group.

(3) Receipts Factor.

(a) In general. The receipts factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the receipts of the taxpayer in this state during the taxable year and the denominator of which is the receipts of the taxpayer within and without this state during the taxable year. The method of calculating receipts for purposes of the denominator is the same as the method used in determining receipts for purposes of the numerator. The receipts factor shall include only those receipts that constitute business income and are included in the computation of the apportionable income base for the taxable year.

(b) Receipts from the lease of real property. The numerator of the receipts factor includes receipts from the lease or rental of real property owned by the taxpayer and receipts from the sublease of real property, if the property is located within this state.

(c) Receipts from the lease of tangible personal property.

(i) Except as described in Subsection (3)(d), the numerator of the receipts factor includes receipts from the lease or rental of tangible personal property owned by the taxpayer if the property is located within this state when it is first placed in service by the lessee.

(ii) Receipts from the lease or rental of transportation property owned by the taxpayer are included in the numerator of the receipts factor to the extent that the property is used in this state.

(A) The extent an aircraft will be deemed to be used in this state and the amount of receipts that shall be included in the numerator of this state's receipts factor are determined by multiplying all the receipts from the lease or rental of the aircraft by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of landings of the aircraft in this state and the denominator of which is the total number of landings of the aircraft.

(B) If the extent of the use of any transportation property within this state cannot be determined, that property will be deemed to be used wholly in the state in which the property has its principal base of operations.

(C) A motor vehicle will be deemed to be used wholly in the state in which it is registered.

(d) Interest from loans secured by real property.

(i) The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans secured by real property if the property is located within this state. If the property is located both within this state and one or more other states, the receipts described in this subsection are included in the numerator of the receipts factor if more than fifty percent of the fair market value of the real property is located within this state. If more than fifty percent of the fair market value of the real property is not located within any one state, the receipts described in this subsection shall be included in the numerator of the receipts factor if the borrower is located in this state.

(ii) The determination of whether the real property securing a loan is located within this state shall be made as of the time the original agreement was made, and any and all subsequent substitutions of collateral shall be disregarded.

(e) Interest from loans not secured by real property. The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans not secured by real property if the borrower is located in this state.

(f) Net gains from the sale of loans. The numerator of the receipts factor includes net gains from the sale of loans. Net gains from the sale of loans includes income recorded under the coupon stripping rules of Section 1286 of the Internal Revenue Code.

(i) The amount of net gains, but not less than zero, from the sale of loans secured by real property included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the net gains by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to Subsection (3)(d), and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans secured by real property.

(ii) The amount of net gains, but not less than zero, from the sale of loans not secured by real property included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the net gains by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to Subsection (3)(e), and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans not secured by real property.

(g) Receipts from credit card receivables. The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from credit card receivables and receipts from fees charged to card holders, such as annual fees, if the billing address of the card holder is in this state.

(h) Net gains from the sale of credit card receivables. The numerator of the receipts factor includes net gains, but not less than zero, from the sale of credit card receivables multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to Subsection (3)(g), and the denominator of which is the taxpayer's total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from credit card receivables and fees charged to card holders.

(i) Credit card issuer's reimbursement fees. The numerator of the receipts factor includes all credit card issuer's reimbursement fees multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to Subsection (3)(g), and the denominator of which is the taxpayer's total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from credit card receivables and fees charged to card holders.

(j) Receipts from merchant discount. The numerator of the receipts factor includes receipts from merchant discount if the commercial domicile of the merchant is in this state. The receipts shall be computed net of any cardholder charge backs, but shall not be reduced by any interchange transaction fees or by any issuer's reimbursement fees paid to another for charges made by its card holders.

(k) Loan servicing fees.

(i) The numerator of the receipts factor includes loan servicing fees derived from loans secured by real property multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to Subsection (3)(d), and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans secured by real property.

(ii) The numerator of the receipts factor includes loan servicing fees derived from loans not secured by real property multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to Subsection (3)(e), and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans not secured by real property.

(iii) In circumstances in which the taxpayer receives loan servicing fees for servicing either the secured or the unsecured loans of another, the numerator of the receipts factor shall include those fees if the borrower is located in this state.

(l) Receipts from services. The numerator of the receipts factor includes receipts from services not otherwise apportioned under this section if the purchaser of the services receives a greater benefit of the service in this state than in any other state.

(m) Receipts from investment assets and activities and trading assets and activities.

(i) Interest, dividends, net gains, but not less than zero, and other income from investment assets and activities and from trading assets and activities shall be included in the receipts factor.

(ii) Investment assets and activities and trading assets and activities include investments securities, trading account assets, federal funds, securities purchased and sold under agreements to resell or repurchase, options, futures contracts, forward contracts, notional principal contracts such as swaps, equities, and foreign currency transactions.

(iii) The receipts factor shall include the following investment and trading assets and activities:

(A) The receipts factor shall include the amount by which interest from federal funds sold and securities purchased under resale agreements exceeds interest expense on federal funds purchased and securities sold under repurchase agreements.

(B) The receipts factor shall include the amount by which interest, dividends, gains and other income from trading assets and activities, including assets and activities in the matched book and arbitrage book, and foreign currency transactions, exceed amounts paid in lieu of interest, amounts paid in lieu of dividends, and losses from those assets and activities.

(iv) The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest, dividends, net gains, but not less than zero, and other income from investment assets and activities and from trading assets and activities described in Subsection (3)(m) that are attributable to this state.

(A) The amount of interest, dividends, net gains, but not less than zero, and other income from investment assets and activities in the investment accounts attributed to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying all such income from assets and activities by a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of the assets properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the average value of all those assets.

(B) The amount of interest from federal funds sold and purchased and from securities purchased under resale agreements and securities sold under repurchase agreements attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount of those funds and securities described in Subsection (3)(m)(iii)(A) by a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of federal funds sold and securities purchased under agreements to resell that are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the average value of all those funds and securities.

(C) The amount of interest, dividends, gains, and other income from trading assets and activities, including assets and activities in the matched book and arbitrage book and foreign currency transactions, but excluding amounts described in Subsections (3)(m)(iv)(A) and (3)(m)(iv)(B), attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount described in Subsection (3)(m)(iii)(B) by a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of those trading assets that are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the average value of all those assets.

(D) For purposes of this subsection, average value shall be determined using the rules for determining the average value of tangible personal property set forth in Subsections (4)(c) and (d).

(v) In lieu of using the method set forth in Subsection (3)(m)(iv), the taxpayer may elect, or the commission may require in order to fairly represent the business activity of the taxpayer in this state, the use of the method set forth in this subsection.

(A) The amount of interest, dividends, net gains, but not less than zero, and other income from investment assets and activities in the investment account attributed to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying all income from those assets and activities by a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross income from those assets and activities properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the gross income from all those assets and activities.

(B) The amount of interest from federal funds sold and purchased and from securities purchased under resale agreements and securities sold under repurchase agreements attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount of those funds and securities described in Subsection (3)(m)(iii)(A) by a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross income from those funds and securities properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the gross income from all those funds and securities.

(C) The amount of interest, dividends, gains and other income from trading assets and activities, including assets and activities in the matched book and arbitrage book and foreign currency transactions, but excluding amounts described in Subsections (3)(m)(v)(A) or (B), attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount described in Subsection (3)(m)(iii)(B) by a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross income from those trading assets and activities properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the gross income from all those assets and activities.

(vi) If the taxpayer elects or is required by the commission to use the method set forth in Subsection (3)(m)(v), the taxpayer shall use this method on all subsequent returns unless the taxpayer receives prior permission from the commission to use, or the commission requires, a different method.

(vii) The taxpayer shall have the burden of proving that an investment asset or activity or trading asset or activity was properly assigned to a regular place of business outside of this state by demonstrating that the day-to-day decisions regarding the asset or activity occurred at a regular place of business outside this state. Where the day-to-day decisions regarding an investment asset or activity or trading asset or activity occur at more than one regular place of business and one regular place of business is in this state and one regular place of business is outside this state, that asset or activity shall be considered to be located at the regular place of business of the taxpayer where the investment or trading policies or guidelines with respect to the asset or activity are established. Unless the taxpayer demonstrates to the contrary, policies and guidelines shall be presumed to be established at the commercial domicile of the taxpayer.

(n) All other receipts. The numerator of the receipts factor includes all other receipts pursuant to the rules set forth in Rule R865-6F-8(10) and (11).

(o) Attribution of certain receipts to commercial domicile.

(i) Except as provided in Subsection (3)(o)(ii), all receipts that would be assigned under this section to a state in which the taxpayer is not taxable shall be included in the numerator of the receipts factor if the taxpayer's commercial domicile is in this state.

(ii)(A) If a unitary group includes one or more financial institutions, and if any member of the unitary group is subject to the taxing jurisdiction of this state, the receipts of each financial institution in the unitary group shall be included in the numerator of this state's receipts factor as provided in Subsections (3)(a) through (n) rather than being attributed to the commercial domicile of the financial institution as provided in Subsection (3)(o)(i).

(B) If a unitary group includes one or more financial institutions whose commercial domicile is in this state, and if any member of the unitary group is taxable in another state under section 59-7-305, the receipts of each financial institution in the unitary group that would be included in the numerator of the other state's receipts factor under Subsections (3)(a) through (n) may not be included in the numerator of this state's receipts factor.

(4) Property Factor.

(a) In General.

(i) For taxpayers that do not elect to include the property described in Subsections (4)(g) through (i) within the property factor, the property factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of real property and tangible personal property owned by or rented to the taxpayer that is located or used within this state during the taxable year, and the denominator of which is the average value of all that property located or used within and without this state during the taxable year.

(ii) For taxpayers that elect to include the property described in Subsections (4)(g) through (i) within the property factor, the property factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of real property and tangible personal property owned by or rented to the taxpayer that is located or used within this state during the taxable year, and the average value of the taxpayer's loans and credit card receivables that are located within this state during the taxable year, and the denominator of which is the average value of all that property located or used within and without this state during the taxable year.

(b) Property included. The property factor shall include only property the income or expenses of which are included, or would have been included if not fully depreciated or expensed, or depreciated or expensed to a nominal amount, in the computation of the apportionable income base for the taxable year.

(c) Value of property owned by the taxpayer.

(i) For taxpayers that do not elect to include the property described in Subsections (4)(g) through (i) within the property factor, the value of real property and tangible personal property owned by the taxpayer is the original cost or other basis of that property for federal income tax purposes without regard to depletion, depreciation or amortization.

(ii) For taxpayers that elect to include the property described in Subsections (4)(g) through (i) within the property factor:

(A) The value of real property and tangible personal property owned by the taxpayer is the original cost or other basis of that property for federal income tax purposes without regard to depletion, depreciation or amortization.

(B) Loans are valued at their outstanding principal balance, without regard to any reserve for bad debts. If a loan is charged-off in whole or in part for federal income tax purposes, the portion of the loan charged off is not outstanding. A specifically allocated reserve established pursuant to regulatory or financial accounting guidelines that is treated as charged-off for federal income tax purposes shall be treated as charged-off for purposes of this rule.

(C) Credit card receivables are valued at their outstanding principal balance, without regard to any reserve for bad debts. If a credit card receivable is charged-off in whole or in part for federal income tax purposes, the portion of the receivable charged-off is not outstanding.

(d) Average value of property owned by the taxpayer. The average value of property owned by the taxpayer is computed on an annual basis by adding the value of the property on the first day of the taxable year and the value on the last day of the taxable year and dividing the sum by two.

(i) If averaging on this basis does not properly reflect average value, the commission may require averaging on a more frequent basis, or the taxpayer may elect to average on a more frequent basis.

(ii) When averaging on a more frequent basis is required by the commission or is elected by the taxpayer, the same method of valuation must be used consistently by the taxpayer with respect to property within and without this state and on all subsequent returns unless the taxpayer receives prior permission from the commission to use a different method, or the commission requires a different method of determining average value.

(e) Average value of real property and tangible personal property rented to the taxpayer.

(i) The average value of real property and tangible personal property that the taxpayer has rented from another and are not treated as property owned by the taxpayer for federal income tax purposes, shall be determined annually by multiplying the gross rents payable during the taxable year by eight.

(ii) If the use of the general method described in this subsection results in inaccurate valuations of rented property, any other method that properly reflects the value may be adopted by the commission or by the taxpayer when approved in writing by the commission. Once approved, that other method of valuation must be used on all subsequent returns unless the taxpayer receives prior approval from the commission to use a different method, or the commission requires a different method of valuation.

(f) Location of real property and tangible personal property owned or rented to the taxpayer.

(i) Except as described in Subsection (4)(f)(ii), real property and tangible personal property owned by or rented to the taxpayer are considered located within this state if they are physically located, situated, or used within this state.

(ii) Transportation property is included in the numerator of the property factor to the extent that the property is used in this state.

(A) The extent an aircraft will be deemed to be used in this state and the amount of value that shall be included in the numerator of this state's property factor is determined by multiplying the average value of the aircraft by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of landings of the aircraft in this state and the denominator of which is the total number of landings of the aircraft everywhere.

(B) If the extent of the use of any transportation property within this state cannot be determined, the property will be deemed to be used wholly in the state in which the property has its principal base of operations.

(C) A motor vehicle will be deemed to be used wholly in the state in which it is registered.

(g) Location of Loans.

(i) A loan is considered located within this state if it is properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state.

(ii) A loan is properly assigned to the regular place of business with which it has a preponderance of substantive contacts. A loan assigned by the taxpayer to a regular place of business without the state shall be presumed to have been properly assigned if:

(A) the taxpayer has assigned, in the regular course of its business, the loan on its records to a regular place of business consistent with federal or state regulatory requirements;

(B) the assignment on its records is based upon substantive contacts of the loan to the regular course of business; and

(C) the taxpayer uses the records reflecting assignment of loans for the filing of all state and local tax returns for which an assignment of loans to a regular place of business is required.

(iii) The presumption of proper assignment of a loan provided in Subsection (4)(g)(ii) may be rebutted upon a showing by the commission, supported by a preponderance of the evidence, that the preponderance of substantive contacts regarding the loan did not occur at the regular place of business to which it was assigned on the taxpayer's records. When the presumption has been rebutted, the loan shall then be located within this state if:

(A) the taxpayer had a regular place of business within this state at the time the loan was made; and

(B) the taxpayer fails to show, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the preponderance of substantive contacts regarding the loan did not occur within this state.

(iv) In the case of a loan assigned by the taxpayer to a place without this state that is not a regular place of business, it shall be presumed, subject to rebuttal by the taxpayer on a showing supported by the preponderance of the evidence, that the preponderance of substantive contacts regarding the loan occurred within this state if, at the time the loan was made the taxpayer's commercial domicile, as defined in this rule, was within this state.

(v) To determine the state in which the preponderance of substantive contacts relating to a loan have occurred, the facts and circumstances regarding the loan at issue shall be reviewed on a case-by-case basis, and consideration shall be given to activities such as the solicitation, investigation, negotiation, approval, and administration of the loan.

(A) Solicitation. Solicitation is either active or passive.

(I) Active solicitation occurs when an employee of the taxpayer initiates the contact with the customer. The activity is located at the regular place of business at which the taxpayer's employee is regularly connected or working out of, regardless of where the services of the employee were actually performed.

(II) Passive solicitation occurs when the customer initiates the contact with the taxpayer. If the customer's initial contact was not at a regular place of business of the taxpayer, the regular place of business, if any, where the passive solicitation occurred is determined by the facts in each case.

(B) Investigation. Investigation is the procedure whereby employees of the taxpayer determine the credit-worthiness of the customer as well as the degree of risk involved in making a particular agreement. The activity is located at the regular place of business at which the taxpayer's employees are regularly connected or working out of, regardless of where the services of those employees were actually performed.

(C) Negotiation. Negotiation is the procedure whereby employees of the taxpayer and its customer determine the terms of the agreement, such as amount, duration, interest rate, frequency of repayment, currency denomination, and security required. The activity is located at the regular place of business at which the taxpayer's employees are regularly connected or working out of, regardless of where the services of those employees were actually performed.

(D) Approval. Approval is the procedure whereby employees or the board of directors of the taxpayer make the final determination whether to enter into the agreement.

(I) The activity is located at the regular place of business at which the taxpayer's employees are regularly connected or working out of, regardless of where the services of those employees were actually performed.

(II) If the board of directors makes the final determination, the activity is located at the commercial domicile of the taxpayer.

(E) Administration. Administration is the process of managing the account.

(I) Administration includes bookkeeping, collecting the payments, corresponding with the customer, reporting to management regarding the status of the agreement and proceeding against the borrower or the security interest if the borrower is in default.

(II) The activity is located at the regular place of business that oversees this activity.

(h) Location of credit card receivables. For purposes of determining the location of credit card receivables, credit card receivables shall be treated as loans and shall be subject to the provisions of Subsection (4)(g).

(i) Period for which properly assigned loan remains assigned. A loan that has been properly assigned to a state shall, absent any change of material fact, remain assigned to that state for the length of the original term of the loan. Thereafter, the loan may be properly assigned to another state if the loan has a preponderance of substantive contact to a regular place of business in that state.

(j) Each taxpayer shall make an initial election on whether to include the property described in Subsections (4)(g) through (i) within the property factor. The initial election is the election made or the filing position taken on the first return filed after the effective date of this rule. This election is irrevocable for a period of three years from the time the initial election is made, except in the case where a substantial ownership change occurs and commission approval is obtained to change the election. After the initial three-year period, the election may be revocable only with the prior approval of the commission and shall require the showing of a significant change in circumstance.

(5) Payroll factor.

(a) In general. The payroll factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the total amount paid in this state during the taxable year by the taxpayer for compensation and the denominator of which is the total compensation paid by the taxpayer both within and without this state during the taxable year. The payroll factor shall include only that compensation included in the computation of the apportionable income tax base for the taxable year.

(b) Compensation relating to nonbusiness income and independent contractors. The compensation of any employee for services or activities connected with the production of nonbusiness income, and payments made to any independent contractor or any other person not properly classifiable as an employee, shall be excluded from both the numerator and denominator of this factor.

(c) When compensation paid in this state. Compensation is paid in this state if any one of the following tests, applied consecutively, is met:

(i) The employee's services are performed entirely within this state.

(ii) The employee's services are performed both within and without the state, but the service performed without the state is incidental to the employee's service within the state. The term "incidental"means any service that is temporary or transitory in nature, or that is rendered in connection with an isolated transaction.

(iii) If the employee's services are performed both within and without this state, the employee's compensation will be attributed to this state:

(A) if the employee's principal base of operations is within this state;

(B) if there is no principal base of operations in any state in which some part of the services are performed, but the place from which the services are directed or controlled is in this state; or

(C) if the principal base of operations and the place from which the services are directed or controlled are not in any state in which some part of the service is performed but the employee's residence is in this state.

(6) This rule is effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997.

R865-6F-33. Taxation of Telecommunications Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-7-302 through 59-7-321.

(1) Definitions.

(a) "Call" means a specific telecommunications transmission as described in Subsection (1)(f).

(b) "Channel termination point" means the point at which information can enter or leave the telecommunications network.

(c) "Communications channel" means a communications path, which can be one-way or two-way, depending on the channel, between two or more points. The path may be designed for the transmission of signals representing human speech, digital or analog data, facsimile, or images.

(d) "Outerjurisdictional property" means tangible personal property, such as orbiting satellites, undersea transmission cables and the like, that are owned or rented by the taxpayer and used in a telecommunications business, but that are not physically located in any particular state.

(e) "Private telecommunications service" means a dedicated telephone service that entitles the subscriber to the exclusive or priority use of a communications channel or groups of communications channels from one or more channel termination points to another channel termination point.

(f) "Telecommunications" means the electronic transmission of voice, data, image, and other information through the use of any medium such as wires, cables, electromagnetic waves, light waves, or any combination of those or similar media now in existence or that might be devised, but telecommunications does not include the information content of any such transmission.

(g) "Telecommunications service" means providing telecommunications, including services provided by telecommunication service resellers, for a charge and includes telephone service, telegraph service, paging service, personal communication services and mobile or cellular telephone service, but does not include electronic information service or Internet access service.

(2) Apportionment and Allocation.

(a) A corporation engaged in the business of telecommunications that is taxable both within and without this state, shall allocate and apportion its net income as provided in this rule. All items of nonbusiness income shall be allocated pursuant to the provisions of Section 59-7-306.

(b) The fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to the state shall be determined in accordance with rule R865-6F-8(4) and (7). Except as otherwise provided in this rule, the property factor shall be determined in accordance with R865-6F-8(8), the payroll factor in accordance with R865-6F-8(9) and the sales factor in accordance with R865-6F-8(10).

(3)(a) Property Factor.

(b) Outerjurisdictional property that is used by a taxpayer in providing a telecommunications service shall be attributed to this state based on the ratio of property within this state used in providing that service, to property everywhere used in providing the service, exclusive of property not located in any state. The term "property" as used herein refers to property includable in the property factor of the Utah apportionment fraction as defined in commission rule R865-6F-8(8).

(4) Sales Factor Numerator.

(a) The following sales and receipts from telecommunications service other than interstate or international private telecommunications service, shall be included in the Utah sales and receipts numerator:

(i) receipts derived from charges for providing telephone "access" from a location within Utah. "Access" means that a call can be made or received from a point within this state. An example of this type of receipt is a monthly subscriber fee billed with reference to equipment located in Utah;

(ii) receipts derived from charges for unlimited calling privileges, if the charges are billed by reference to equipment located in Utah;

(iii) receipts derived from charges for individual toll calls that originate and terminate in Utah;

(iv) receipts derived from charges for individual toll calls that either originate or terminate in Utah and are billed by reference to a customer or equipment located in Utah;

(v) receipts derived from any other charges if the charges are not includable in another state's sales factor numerator under that state's law, and the customer's billing address is in Utah.

(b) Gross receipts derived from providing interstate and international private telecommunications services shall be determined as follows:

(i) If the segment of the interstate or international channel between each termination point is separately billed, 100 percent of the charge imposed at each termination point in this state and for service in this state between those points is includable in the Utah sales factor. In addition, 50 percent of the charge imposed for service between a channel termination point outside this state and a point inside the state shall be included in the Utah sales factor. For purposes of this paragraph, termination points shall be measured by the nearest termination point inside the state to the first termination point outside the state.

(ii) If each segment of the interstate or international channel is not separately billed, the Utah sales shall be the same portion of the interstate or international channel charge that the number of channel termination points within this state bears to the total number of channel termination points within and without this state.

R865-6F-36. Taxation of Registered Securities or Commodities Broker or Dealer Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-7-302 through 59-7-321.

(1) Definitions.

(a) "Brokerage commission income" means income earned by a registered securities or commodities broker or dealer from the purchase and sale of securities or commodities by the broker or dealer:

(i) for which the broker or dealer does not take title; and

(ii) as an agent for a customer's account.

(b) "Commodity" is as defined in Section 475(e)(2), Internal Revenue Code.

(c) "Principal transaction" means a transaction where the registered securities or commodities broker or dealer acts as a principal or underwriter for the broker or dealer's own account, rather than as an agent for the customer.

(d) "Registered securities or commodities broker or dealer" means a corporation registered as a broker or dealer with the Securities and Exchange Commission or the Commodities Futures Trading Commission.

(e) "Security" is as defined in Section 475(c)(2), Internal Revenue Code.

(f) "Securities or commodities used to produce income" means securities or commodities that are purchased and held by a registered securities or commodities broker or dealer as a principal or underwriter for resale to its customers.

(2) Apportionment and allocation.

(a) A registered securities or commodities broker or dealer whose business activity is taxable both within and without this state shall allocate and apportion its net income as provided in this rule. All items of nonbusiness income shall be allocated pursuant to the provisions of Section 59-7-306.

(b) The fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to the state shall be determined in accordance with rule R865-6F-8(4) and (7). Except as otherwise provided in this rule, the property factor shall be determined in accordance with R865-6F-8(8), the payroll factor in accordance with R865-6F-8(9), and the sales factor in accordance with R865-6F-8(10).

(3) Property factor.

(a) The property factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of the taxpayer's real and tangible personal property owned or rented and used, or available for use, within this state during the taxable year, plus the average value of securities or commodities used to produce income during the taxable year that are held for resale exclusively through a branch, office, or other place of business in this state. The denominator is the average value of the total of the taxpayer's real and tangible personal property owned or rented and used within and without this state during the taxable year, plus the average value of all securities or commodities used to produce income during the taxable year.

(b) Securities or commodities used to produce income shall be valued at original cost.

(4) Sales factor.

(a) The sales factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the total revenue that is derived from transactions and activities in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business within this state during the taxable year. The denominator is the total revenue that is derived from transactions and activities in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business within and without this state during the taxable year.

(b) Brokerage commission income shall be included in the denominator of the sales factor. Brokerage commission income shall be included in the numerator of the sales factor if the customer that is paying the commission is located in Utah. A customer is located in Utah if the mailing address of the customer as it appears in the broker or dealer's records is in Utah.

(c) Gross receipts from principal transactions shall be included in the denominator of the sales factor. Gross receipts from principal transactions shall be included in the numerator of the sales factor if the sale is made through a branch, office, or other place of business in Utah. Gross receipts from principal transactions shall be determined after the deduction of any cost incurred by the taxpayer to acquire the securities or commodities.

(d) Other gross receipts such as margin interest on brokerage accounts and account maintenance fees shall be included in the denominator of the sales factor, and, if the customer that is paying the amounts or fees is located in Utah based on the customer address as it appears in the broker or dealer's records, in the numerator of the sales factor.

R865-6F-37. Disclosure of Reportable Transactions and Material Advisor List Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-1-1301 through 59-1-1309.

(1) A taxpayer shall disclose a reportable transaction to the commission by:

(a) marking the box on the taxpayer's corporate franchise or income tax return indicating that the taxpayer has filed federal form 8886, or successor form, with the Internal Revenue Service; and

(b) providing the commission a copy of the form described in Subsection (1)(a) upon the request of the commission.

(2)(a) A material advisor shall disclose a reportable transaction to the commission by attaching a copy of the federal form 8264, or successor form, and any additional information that the material advisor submitted to the Internal Revenue Service, to the form prescribed by the commission.

(b) A material advisor shall provide the commission the information described in Subsection (2)(a) within 60 days after the form 8264, or successor form, was required to be filed with the Internal Revenue Service.

(3)(a) The list of persons a material advisor is required to maintain under 26 C.F.R. Sec. 301.6112-1 shall satisfy the requirement for the list of persons a material advisor is required to maintain under Section 59-1-1307.

(b) If more than one material advisor is required to maintain a list of persons in accordance with Section 59-1-1307, the material advisor that maintained the list required by 26 C.F.R. Sec. 301.6112-1 shall maintain the list required by Section 59-1-1307.

R865-6F-38. Renewable Energy Credit Amount Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Section 59-7-614.

An amount certified by the Utah State Energy Program under rule R638-2, Renewable Energy Systems Tax Credit, as qualifying for the tax credit under Section 59-7-614 shall, in the absence of fraud or misrepresentation, be the amount allowed by the commission as a credit under that section.

R865-6F-39. Definitions Related to Captive Real Estate Investment Trust and Foreign Real Estate Investment Trust Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Section 59-7-101.

The following definitions apply to the definitions of captive real estate investment trust and foreign real estate investment trust in Section 59-7-101.

(1) "Cash or cash equivalents" means currency and coins, bank balances, negotiable money orders, checks, and highly liquid investments that can easily be converted into cash, such as treasury bills, certificates of deposit, marketable securities, and negotiable financial instruments.

(2) "Established securities market" is defined as that phrase is defined in Treas. Reg. Section 1.884-5 (d)(2) (2007), which is adopted and incorporated by reference.

(3) "Listed Australian property trust" means:

(a) an Australian unit trust registered as a managed investment scheme under the Australian Corporations Act in which the principal class of units is listed on a recognized stock exchange in Australia and is regularly traded on an established securities market; and

(b) an entity organized as a trust, provided that an entity listed in Subsection (3)(a) owns or controls, directly or indirectly, 75 percent or more of the voting power or value of the beneficial interests or shares of that trust.

(4) "Regularly traded" is defined as that phrase is defined in Treas. Reg. Section 1.884-5 (d)(4) (2007), which is adopted and incorporated by reference.

R865-6F-40. Foreign Operating Company Subtraction from Unadjusted Income Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-7-101 and 59-7-106.

(1) The activities of a partnership interest are taken into account in determining whether a corporation qualifies as a foreign operating company and calculating any adjustment for which the corporate partner that is a foreign operating company is eligible.

(a) Partnership activities are attributed to the corporation to the extent of the corporation's ownership interest in the partnership.

(b) The character of each class or type of partnership income passes through to the corporate partner. Accordingly, a corporate partner that is a foreign operating company may not make a subtraction from unadjusted income as a foreign operating company for partnership income generated from intangible property and assets held for investment and not from a regular business trading activity.

(2) Prior to determining the foreign operating company subtraction, a foreign operating company that is a member of a unitary group shall eliminate a transaction between the foreign operating company and a partnership held directly or indirectly by a member of the same unitary group to the extent of the interest the foreign operating company holds in the partnership.

KEY

taxation, franchises, historic preservation, trucking industries

Date of Enactment or Last Substantive Amendment

July 14, 2016

Notice of Continuation

November 10, 2016

Authorizing, Implemented, or Interpreted Law

9-2-401; through; 9-2-415; 16-10a-1501; through; 16-10a-1533; 53B-8a-112; 59-1-1301 through 59-1-1309; 59-6-102; 59-7; 59-7-101; 59-7-102; 59-7-104; through; 59-7-106; 59-7-108; 59-7-109; 59-7-110; 59-7-112; 59-7-302; through; 59-7-321; 59-7-402; 59-7-403; 59-7-501; 59-7-502; 59-7-505; 59-7-601; through; 59-7-614; 59-7-608; 59-7-701; 59-7-703; 59-10-603; 59-13-202; 59-13-301; 63M-1; 63N-2-201 through 63N-2-215


Additional Information

Contact

For questions regarding the content or application of rules under Title R865, please contact the promulgating agency (Tax Commission, Auditing). A list of agencies with links to their homepages is available at http://www.utah.gov/government/agencylist.html or from http://www.rules.utah.gov/contact/agencycontacts.htm.