Utah Administrative Code

The Utah Administrative Code is the body of all effective administrative rules as compiled and organized by the Division of Administrative Rules (see Subsection 63G-3-102(5); see also Sections 63G-3-701 and 702).

NOTE: For a list of rules that have been made effective since October 1, 2019, please see the codification segue page.

NOTE TO RULEFILING AGENCIES: Use the RTF version for submitting rule changes.

R994. Workforce Services, Unemployment Insurance.

Rule R994-202. Employing Units.

As in effect on October 1, 2019

Table of Contents

R994-202-101. Legal Status of Employing Unit.

The Department may, on its own motion or if requested by an employer, determine the legal status of an employing unit according to Section 35A-4-313. The determination will be based on the best available information including, registration forms, income tax returns, financial and business records, regulatory licenses, legal documents, and information from the involved parties. The Department's determination is subject to review and may be appealed according to rule R994-508, Appeal Procedures.

(1) Sole Proprietorship.

A sole proprietorship is a legal entity that is owned by one person. The sole proprietor is the employing unit. The sole proprietor's services are exempt from coverage pursuant to rule R994-208-103(10). The services of the sole proprietor's spouse, children under age 21, and parents are also exempt from coverage and those individuals are not entitled to unemployment benefits based on the compensation received from the sole proprietorship.

(2)(a) Partnership.

A partnership is a legal entity composed of two or more persons or business entities that agree to contribute money, assets, labor, or skills to the business. Each partner shares the profits, losses, and management of the business and each partner is personally and wholly liable for debts of the partnership. The partners are the employing unit. The partners' services are exempt from unemployment coverage and the partners are not entitled to unemployment benefits based on compensation received from the partnership pursuant to rule R994-208-103(11). The services of individuals working for partners who are also employing units, such as corporations and limited liability companies, are subject or exempt as provided under this section. If partners are added or one or more of the partners leaves the partnership, the partnership ceases to exist at the point the change occurs, and any remaining entity becomes a different employing unit. Rule R994-205-102(2) explains partnership family employment that is exempt from coverage.

(b) Limited Partnership (LP) and Limited Liability Partnership (LLP).

LPs and LLPs are partnerships composed of one or more general partners and one or more limited partners. The general partners manage the business and share fully in its profits and losses. Limited partners share in the profits of the business, but their losses are limited to the extent of their investment. The general partner's services are exempt from unemployment insurance coverage, but any payments to limited partners for services are wages subject to unemployment insurance contributions pursuant to rule R994-208-103(11).

(3) Corporation.

A corporation is a legal entity granted a state charter legally recognizing it as a separate entity having its own rights, privileges, and liabilities distinct from those of its owners. The corporation is the employing unit. Corporations must be registered and in good standing with the Utah Department of Commerce. If a corporation is not registered or is in an expired status, it is treated as a proprietorship or partnership, based upon the best available information.

(a) A change of ownership occurs when the corporate assets are sold or transferred according to successorship rule R994-303-106. The sale, transfer, or exchange of corporate stock is not a change of ownership except as specified in rule R994-304-101.

(b) All individuals employed by the corporation, including officers, are employees of the corporation. Compensation to officers who perform services for the corporation is considered wages. Payments to corporate employees of dividends, loans, property distributions, and expenses in lieu of compensation for services may be reclassified as wages by the Department based on the extent and significance of the work performed and the documentation supporting the payments. This applies to all corporations regardless of income tax reporting status. The following payments to officers are generally not wages:

(i) directors fees that are uniform and reasonable;

(ii) reimbursement for expenses that are reasonable and documented. The Department may require receipts to document questionable expenses. Section R994-208-103, contains additional information on expense reimbursements;

(iii) loans supported by notes and reasonable repayment schedules. Non-interest bearing notes that are payable upon demand with no payment schedule are considered wages if the officer is performing services for the corporation; or

(iv) documented return of an investment where the officer has loaned money to, or invested money in, the corporation.

(4) Limited Liability Company (LLC).

A LLC is a legal entity that combines the limited liability protection of a corporation and the pass through taxation of a sole proprietorship or partnership. The LLC is the employing unit and must be registered and in good standing with the Utah Department of Commerce. A LLC that is not registered or is in an expired status is treated as a proprietorship or partnership, based upon the best available information.

(a) Members of a LLC are not employees of the LLC and payments to them are exempt from coverage provided all of the following criteria are met;

(i) the LLC is registered and in good standing with the Utah Department of Commerce,

(ii) the member has a bona fide ownership interest in the LLC and is listed in the articles of organization, the operating agreement, or federal income tax return, and

(iii) the LLC has not been approved by the IRS as an "eligible entity" which allows the LLC to file with the IRS as a corporation. Approval may be obtained by the IRS accepting a written application or form, or the IRS accepting the filing of a U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return or U.S. Income Tax Return for an S Corporation.

(b) A nonmember manager is an employee of the LLC.

(c) Legal actions, subpoenas, and court orders will be issued to a member or manager of record.

(d) Assessments and liens will be issued in the name of the LLC, and not against the members of record.

(5) Trust.

A trust is a legal entity created to transfer property to a trustee to hold and manage for the benefit and profit of designated persons. The trust is the employing unit. A trust instrument or document must exist in order for the entity to be recognized. If the trustee does not independently perform fiduciary and management responsibilities, the trustee is an employee of the trust.

(6) Association.

An association is an entity consisting of a collection or organization of persons or other legal entities that have joined together for a certain common objective. Payments to association members for business services such as accounting and maintenance are considered wages unless the member is exempt as an independent contractor as defined in Section R994-204-301, Independent Contractor. Documented expense reimbursements paid to members are not wages.

(7) Joint Venture.

A joint venture is a legal entity consisting of a one-time grouping of two or more persons or legal entities in a business undertaking. Unlike a partnership, a joint venture does not entail a continuing relationship among the parties. The exempt or employment status of proprietors, partners, LLC members, or corporate officers is not lost in the formation of the joint venture.

(8) Estate.

An estate is a legal entity consisting of the property of a living, deceased, or bankrupt person. An estate established to manage a person's business is the employing unit. The executor or administrator of the estate is not considered to be an employee of the estate.

R994-202-102. Temporary Help Company.

(1) "Temporary help services" means services consisting of an organization:

(a) recruiting and hiring its own employees;

(b) finding other organizations that need the services of those employees;

(c) assigning those employees to perform work at or services for the other organizations to support or supplement the other organizations' workforces;

(d) providing assistance in special work situations such as employee absences, skill shortages, seasonal workloads, or to perform special assignments or projects with a definite ending date; and

(e) customarily attempting to reassign the employees to other organizations when they finish each assignment by a definite ending date.

(2) A company that provides all or substantially all of the client company's regular workers with no restrictions or limitation on the duration of employment, is not the employing unit for those workers and, therefore, the client company is considered the employing unit subject to all of the provisions of the Employment Security Act as an employer, unless the company is licensed as a Professional Employer Organization (PEO) pursuant to the provisions of Section 31A-40-101 et seq.

(3) Individuals and services exempt under the Act based on the nature of service or due to a specific exemption continue to be exempt if the individual is an employee of the temporary help services company or the services are rendered by an employee of the temporary help services company.

R994-202-103. Common Paymaster.

(1) A common paymaster relationship exists when two or more related corporations concurrently employ the same individual and one of the corporations compensates the individual for the concurrent employment. The Internal Revenue Service will recognize a common paymaster if the closely related corporations satisfy all of the following criteria:

(a) each related company is a corporation;

(b) there must be at least 50 percent common ownership of stock or interest, or there must be at least 50 percent common officers in the related companies, or 30 percent of the employees work for all of the related companies;

(c) the reporting for any calendar year must be consistent with FUTA annual 940 reporting; and

(d) the employee(s) must be performing concurrent service for some or all of the related companies.

(2) The Department does not allow or recognize common paymaster reporting as of March 1, 2005, even if the relationship is approved by the Internal Revenue Service. Each corporation is required to register with the Department and obtain a Utah Employer Registration Number.

R994-202-104. Payrolling.

(1) Payrolling is defined as the practice of an employing unit paying wages to the employees of another employer or reporting those wages on its payroll tax reports. Generally an employee is reportable by the employer:

(a) who has the right to hire and fire the employee;

(b) who has the responsibility to control and direct the employee; and

(c) for whom the employee performs the service.

(2) Payrolling is not allowed. Exceptions to this provision are contained in the Professional Employer rule R994-202-106 and the Temporary Help Services rule R994-202-102.

R994-202-105. Constructive Knowledge of Work Performed.

(1) If an individual is hired to perform or assist in performing the work of an employee, the individual is deemed to be employed by the employer provided the employer had actual or constructive knowledge of the work performed by the individual. This is the case even when the individual who is hired to assist the employee is hired or paid by that employee.

(2) The employer must report and pay contributions for all actual and constructive employment.

(3) An employer has actual or constructive knowledge if:

(a) The employer knows or should have known the employee hires an assistant;

(b) The employer knows or should have known that the employee's duties require an assistant;

(c) The employer instructs the employee to perform duties without an assistant, but the employee disregards the instructions and hires an assistant. If the employer becomes aware of the situation and takes no action to discontinue the current or future working relationship between the employee and the assistant, the assistant is considered to be employed by the employer for both the past and future work performed. However, if the employer takes action to prevent the employee from hiring an assistant in the future, then the assistant is not considered employed by the employer for the work already performed; or

(d) The employer gives the employee the option of hiring an assistant. The employee hires an assistant but does not inform the employer of the hire.

R994-202-106. Professional Employer Organizations (PEO).

(1) Definitions.

(a) "Agent" means an individual or organization authorized to act on behalf of an employer.

(b) "Client" or "client company" means a person or entity that enters into a professional employer agreement with a PEO.

(c) "Co-employment relationship" means a relationship that is intended to be ongoing rather than temporary or project specific and whose rights, obligations and responsibilities of an employer are allocated pursuant to the professional employer agreement or Chapter 40 of the PEO Licensing Act.

(d) "Professional employer agreement" means a written contract by and between a client and a PEO that provides for the co-employment of a covered employee as defined in Section 31A-40-102.

(e) "Professional employer organization" or "PEO" means any organization engaged in the business of providing professional employer services. "Employee leasing company" and "Employee staffing company" are terms also used to describe a PEO.

(f) "Professional employer services" means the service of entering into a co-employment relationship under which all or a majority of the employees who provide a service to a client, or division or work unit of a client, are considered employees as defined in the PEO Licensing Act, Section 31A-40-101 et seq.

(g) "Covered employee" means an individual is a covered employee of a PEO if the individual is co-employed pursuant to a professional employer agreement subject to Section 31A-40-203.

(2) Before the employer is considered to be a PEO, it must comply with the requirements of the PEO Licensing Act, Sections 31A-40-101 through 31A-40-402 of the Utah Code. In the absence of such compliance, the Department may choose to hold each "client company" as the employing unit.

(3) A PEO that fails to qualify as an employer under Sections 31A-40-101 through 31A-40-402 of the PEO Licensing Act and as an employing unit under 35A-4-202(1), is considered to be the agent of the client company. The client's workers are not the employees of the agent. The client company remains the employer of its workers for all purposes of the Employment Security Act. An employee not covered by a professional employment agreement remains the employee of the client company.

(4) Individuals and services exempt under the Employment Security Act based on the nature of service or due to a specific exemption continue to be exempt if the individual is an employee of a PEO or the services are rendered by an employee of a PEO. The exemptions for domestic and agricultural services contained in Section 35A-4-205 are taken into consideration for the PEO's clients in the aggregate, and not on an individual client basis.

(5) A PEO cannot elect reimbursable coverage even if the client company could independently qualify as a reimbursable employer.

(6) Reporting Requirements.

(a) Any entity conducting business as a PEO must register with the Department and complete all forms and reports required by the Department. Failure to file reports or pay contributions timely will result in the Department treating the client as a new employer without experience rating, unless the client is otherwise eligible for experience rating, beginning on the day the PEO failure occurred, as outlined in Section 31A-40-210 of the PEO Licensing Act:

(b) Within 30 days of the effective date of a contract with a client, a PEO must submit to the Department the following information:

(i) the effective date of the contract;

(ii) the client's name and address;

(iii) the client's Federal Employer Identification Number (FEIN) if registered with the IRS, and the client's Employer's Utah Registration Number if previously registered with this Department; and

(iv) the client's principal business activity.

(c) Within 30 days of the termination of a contract with a client, a PEO must submit to the Department the following information:

(i) the effective date of contract termination;

(ii) the client's name and address; and

(iii) the client's FEIN if registered with the IRS, and the client's Employer's Utah Registration Number if previously registered with this Department.

(7) The Department may directly contact a PEO or its clients in order to conduct investigations, audits and otherwise obtain information necessary for the administration of the Employment Security Act as permitted by Section 35A-4-312.

(8) The rules pertaining to "payrolling" in R994-202-104 do not apply to a PEO that is in compliance with the PEO Licensing Act, Sections 31A-40-101 through 31A-40-402.


unemployment compensation, employment

Date of Enactment or Last Substantive Amendment

June 18, 2009

Notice of Continuation

March 29, 2018

Authorizing, Implemented, or Interpreted Law


Additional Information


For questions regarding the content or application of rules under Title R994, please contact the promulgating agency (Workforce Services, Unemployment Insurance). A list of agencies with links to their homepages is available at http://www.utah.gov/government/agencylist.html or from http://www.rules.utah.gov/contact/agencycontacts.htm.